Service number was for life (as any serviceman will tell you!), only being changed in the RCAF and RAF upon commission. RAAF kept the same throughout, not sure about RNZAF but I suspect so. I'm not at home at the mo, but will look up that number and see what block it falls in which might narrow things down a bit. Service numbers were issued in 'blocks' of several thousand for things like former cadets joining the RAF (so they could easily be identified) recruits starting at a certain station like Uxbridge (which closed about two weeks ago) Padgate, Cardington etc, civilians in the RAF, that sort of thing. So straight away, if you have a Service Number 1316543, the 131 identifies you starting at Cardington (for example)with the rest more your own number.
As for the Air Force list (there is an Army List too, and probably a Navy list), it was and still is, a book which contains the number, rank and name (plus initials I think) of all serving officers, under the category they are in. It came out annually I think, and also contains the date of that rank. So if you get a few you can plot promotion dates and possibly, if the bloke moved around, his rough trades. It wont tell you units, but will specify a Chaplain, or Technical Branch etc.
Some reference libraries will have it and odd copies come up on ebay from time to time (I think the 1940 list, being Battle of Britain, was reprinted as a collectible). Its not hugely informative but can give a few pointers and help with a service number if you only have part of it, or likely numbers of you have none.