Sample contents of the tape when machine starts"
The required content when the machine halts:
Definition of a Turing Machine
(copied from the internet)
A Turing machine is a kind of state machine. At any time the machine is in any one of a finite number of states. Instructions for a Turing machine consist in specified conditions under which the machine will transition between one state and another.
A Turing machine has an infinite one-dimensional tape divided into cells. Traditionally we think of the tape as being horizontal with the cells arranged in a left-right orientation. The tape has one end, at the left say, and stretches infinitely far to the right. Each cell is able to contain one symbol, either ‘0’ or ‘1’.
The machine has a read-write head, which at any time scanning a single cell on the tape. This read-write head can move left and right along the tape to scan successive cells.
The action of a Turing machine is determined completely by (1) the current state of the machine (2) the symbol in the cell currently being scanned by the head and (3) a table of transition rules, which serve as the “program” for the machine.
Each transition rule is a 4-tuple:
< State0, Symbol, Statenext, Action >
which can be read as saying
if the machine is in state State0 and the current cell contains Symbol then move into state Statenext taking Action”. The actions available to a Turing machine are either to write a symbol on the tape in the current cell (which we will denote with the symbol in question), or to move the head one cell to the left or right, which we will denote by the symbols « and » respectively.
If the machine reaches a situation in which there is not exactly one transition rule specified, i.e., none or more than one, then the machine halts.
In modern terms, the tape serves as the memory of the machine, while the read-write head is the memory bus through which data is accessed (and updated) by the machine. There are two important things to notice about the definition. The first is that the machine's tape is infinite in length, corresponding to an assumption that the memory of the machine is infinite. The second is similar in nature, but not explicit in the definition of the machine, namely that a function will be Turing-computable if there exists a set of instructions that will result in the machine computing the function regardless of the amount of time it takes. One can think of this as assuming the availability of infinite time to complete the computation.
These two assumptions are intended to ensure that the definition of computation that results is not too narrow. This is, it ensures that no computable function will fail to be Turing-computable solely because there is insufficient time or memory to complete the computation. If a function is not Turing-computable it is because Turing machines lack the computational machinery to carry it out, not because of a lack of spatio-temporal resources.