I cannot answer all of your questions....but I'll share what I do know...
When I surged a couple of days ago, the nurse told me that I had "ovulated." This was the term she used. When I had the ultrasounds the day I surged and the day after - the follicles were still at the ovaries and they continue to increase in size. (I was also taking Brevelle shots...)
Dr. Check found out right away that my luteal phase was messed up. I had TOO MUCH progesterone in my system on CD1. I am thinking that I surge (ovulate) early, but release the eggs later in the cycle - producing the rise in progesterone during AF.
And oh - AF visits regularly for about 5 to 6 days every 25-28 days.