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Cro-Magnon superiority

May 26 2003 at 9:24 AM
anon  (Login x956)
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Itzkoff, Seymour W.
The Intelligence Divide: A Contemplative Survey of Human History
Mankind Quarterly, Fall2002, Vol. 43 Issue 1

A Revolutionary Intelligence

Several millions of visitors have visited the ancient Paleolithic caves of France and Spain, where they have gazed in awe at the artistic achievements of the ancient Cro-Magnon hunters some 25,000 years ago. They have observed Lascaux and Altamira artistic renderings which in terms of skill ad esthetic realization are equal to anything that has since been created, albeit in a rough and ready world where hunter, artist, and citizen were probably encompassed by the same persons. At Cap Blanc they experienced a sculptured frieze of animals that could have been placed on the Parthenon wthout apologies. Indeed, within the Vatican, the dark confines of the Sistine Chapel realized the same conditions of mysterious sanctity that were evoked in the ancient caves, the flickering eixks that charred the undulating stone canvas. Without doubt that same mentation that characterized the artistic work of a Phidias in Athens or a MIchelangelo in Rome inspired these Cro-Magnon artists so many thousands of years earlier.

The abstract brain which created these evocations so many thousands of years apart was well in place in Eurasia at a remote period. But it was then unique on our planet, for there were many other people living on our earth, and in the same time frame, who lived much simpler and basic subsistence lives. This brain was a unique reation of evolutionary time. Perhaps it was a fluke that the explosion in size and structure occurred in the north. Their art and technology of a uniquely advanced form was characteristic of these people from the Urals to the Atlantic, from the southern boundaries of the glaciers to southern Europe and into the mid-East and western Asia. These high cognitive Homo sapiens sapiens genes gradually made their way into other goegraphies and other humans over timee, perhaps from c. 250,000 years ago when the brain revolution that revealed itself in the physical morphology and the ulture Cro-Magnons first appeared. In this way the human genus became one species as it was gradually lifeed over the brain Rubicon from H. erectus to sapiencey.

We ought not scoff at this presumptive intelligence, given the simple if beautiful tools, borers, scrapers, hand axes, spear and arrow heads, needles, combs, now made of bone, ivory, flint, precious stones, fabricated with excruciatingly careful and diligent care and perception. Primitive stuff, perhaps, compared to computers and atomic bombs. But remember, we do not judge the achievements of a people by what they have inherited. Rather, the test of any progress in civilization is made by the advances a people make over the previous generation. And these Cro-Magnons even compared to their indigenous competitors in Eur-Asia, the Neanderthals, they too having Caucasoid racial characteristics, but primitive in brow and bone, were way beyond the existing norms of human achievements, both material and cultural.

[. . .]

High Intelligence Creates Civilization

The great reversal in the movement of humans, north and south, began at the beginning of a period of continental climate changes, some 12,000 years ago. For the approximately 35,000 years before this change, the flourishing of the Cro-Magnon peoples in their Eur-Asian homeland, the climate was largely benign, if affected by the ever-presence of the glaciers. Students of the climate of this period believe that winters were largely autumnal in character, rarely venture far below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, but also staying cool in mid-day. The summers were spring-like, never rising beyond the fifties to low sixties, Fahrenheit. Eurasia then had a rich ecology that attracted myriad species of large mammals, including humans. The good times ended when a continental climate suddenly set in about 12,000 years ago. Now the summers were hot, the glaciers in retreat north, the winters cold and snowy, difficult for the huge foragers to browse beneath snow and frozen ground. The forests came back, the mammoths, saber-toothed tigers, giant sloths, all disapeared.

Image the cultural shock. Some hung on, the ancestors of the Europeans. Others wandered beyond the next mountain to see what they could find. The only comparison one can make with the impact that these events probably had on these people is the more recent fate of the Amero-Indians. They had thousands of additional years to genetically groove their migratory way of life. And they did engage in terrible burtal tribal wars. The America were also the setting for a happy, excitng, and fulfilling existence. There was little of the agricutlureal grindstone and its organizational specializations of urban life. When the EUropeans came to North America, this Amero-Indian happy-go-lucky hunting life came to an abrupt end. Several hundred years later, the excitements of subsistence hunting have been replaced by the urban glitter of the gambling casino.

The descendants of the Cro-Magnons on their way south were given several thousands of years of breathering room, to learn to adapt to the new way of life along the rivers, Tigris/Euphrates, Nile, Danube, Indus, and along the Mediterranean littoral. The same minds that quickly adjusted to the relatively mild and rich hunting ecology on the Eur-Asian plains, soon fabricated sickles to harvest the wild grains, cisterns to store the variable rains. In the north, hardly had their fossil bones appeared in the geological record, 45,000 B.P. then the art, the supple new technological devices, the rich decorative culture made itself known. It teaches us a lesson, that was should remember, smart people learn quickly. Far back in time, in the north, 45,000-25,000 years ago, they had figured out the technology of fire hardened pottery, even making chronometric markings, as modern hunters do, to record the number of nights between full moons. Civilization is complexity amidst the alomost constant change produced by talented igdividuals. These talents can show themselves as metallurgist, military and weaposn innovators, irrigation engineers, town planners and wall builders. Shamans and poets, musicians and jewelers, beauticians and cloths designers,were hardly in the rear. In the lands to the south of the frigid winters, along the rushing river banks, the sparkling shores of the Mediterranean, it all began. This was a world that attracted people, for the prosperity that beckoned. Riverine agriculture and herding, as well as some hunting, elephants still ran wild in Syria in Biblical times, Eighth century BCE, marked the change in their economic way of life.

At no time in this now pulsating urban setting was power so concentrated that any one group of military, political, or religious rulers, could stifle the natural, rhythmic flow of innovation. Highly intelligent civilizationally competent individuals in a now dynamic and complex urban social setting were stimulated to see ever new possibilities in the cultural web of meanings that surrounded him/her. Up north in the world of caves and hunting economy, the simplicity and seeming permanance of this tough yet idyllic life, art and technology were infused with timeless rhythms. Changes and progress, yes, but slower. In the south with so many different professions, occupations, crafts, the inputs from all directions, up and down the streets and alleys of the new towns, the humming stimulus was messaging the ready mind.

[. . .]

The power of the north lies in the same aggressive intelligence that produce the Sumerian writing system, the Old Testament, Euripides. Simply, it was the intelligence of the north that successfully expanded its reach, militarily, politically, and always genetically. In the book of unexpected outcomes, the losers were usually benefited by the fact that the victors loaned them a goodly amount of their victorious genes. In this way the peoples of the world gradually came closer to the norms of brain size and cultural competency that the revolutionary Cro-Magnons had first established for humankind.

[. . .]

The Mysterious Far East

[. . .]

Towards the end of the Ice Ages, c.50,000 years ago, there seems to have started a push south, of Mongoloids, who gradually interbred with the Australid ethnicities and created the various Malaysian, Indonesian, Philippine, ethnicities. Indeed, there was at the same time a probable move eastward of Caucasoid types, Cro-Magnon and Cro-Magnon/Neanderthaloid hybrid people. Possibly, even the continebtal Australian and Papuan New Gunea aboriginal people could have absorbed small doses of foreign Eur-Asian genes.

[. . .]

The Amero-Indians crossed Central Asia to migrate over Beringia, the land bridge to the America, before the end of the Ice Ages, c. 15,000 B.P. They probably started their wanderings as Caucasoids utilizing a Cro-Magnon-like technology - bow and arrows, spears. They encountered resident Mongoloid and northern Australid peoples, absorbing their genes as they moved ease. The very diversity of the Amero-Indian peoples argues that these many groups at first were small in numbers, bands or small tribes.

[. . .]

In this way the resident Mongoloid/Australid populations were well enfiladed with foreign genetic elements. It is fair today to say that most contemporary Mongoloid peoples are tri-racial hybrids. We have evidence of Germanic/Celtic like peoples advancing to the eastern borders, Tarim Basin, of Xinjian Province in China, at a date of about 2000 BCE. The Indo-European dialect Tokharian was spoken in this province until about 900 CE, when Turkic people moved into this area, then later, Han Chinese. The Chinese mythic histories have always recognized that their formation as a people involved the intermixing of light haired blue/green eyed people from the West, with the resident black haired people of the south, e.g. the Yangtze and beyond, as in the Pazyryk graves.

If one travels to the Yellow River valley capital of ancient imperial China, Xian, one will find the museum of the terra-cotta soldiers. This was the then-resident ermperor's humanitarian means to insure his safety and comfort in death, attended by his horse-riding soldiers. The date is 300-200 BCE. Long before, c. 2000-1500 BCE the first Chinese Dynasty, the Shang set itself up in this Yellow River area. These invaders from the west arrived with Indo-European style chariots. They brought literacy to China. Some scholars see the evolution of Chinese orthography, the written form of the language, as having and odd similarity to certain early West Eurasian forms of writing, including possibly even the 'later' Nordic runes. The above-noted fair Caucasoid wanderers were in the east central Eurasian area at roughly the same early period.

The terra-cotta soldiers of Xian, 300-200 BCE were defenders of a dynast which could then trace its history back 1500 years, to the literate Shang. Today, the contemporary Han Chinese rulters of Xian flatly agree that these soldiers were not Han. They were taller, 5'10", in height with a definitely hybrid physiognomy, very similar to contemporary Kazaks, a mixture of Mongoloid/Caucasoid genetics. SOme of these genes subsequently, post-"Chu," 200 BCE, made their way south in China.

Consider the Japanese and Koreans. Both ethnicities arrived at about the same time in their respective lands interestingly also, c.300-200 BCE. They probably traveled a more northern route across Siberia and Mongolia, and thus could have avoided the warriors of Xian. The Koreans might be described as the "Japanese who stayed home." They both speak a language related to the Uralic/Altaic group, to Finnish, Hungarian, and the Turkic languages of Central Asia. To my mind they undoubtedly begain their overland journey to the East as Caucasoids, picking up Mongoloid genetic elements as they traveled, fought, and ultimately triumphed. As with the Xian Chinese, the Koreans/Japanese found a Malayo-Polynesian type peoples in the lands of ultimate destiny. They subdued these indigenous peole, interbred with them to form their contemporary ethnic profile. The Japanese and Koreans, was with the Chinese, are also a tri-racial hybrid people.


High human intelligence was a hard-earned gift, after much death and suffering. It was created as a product of a struggle with Mother Nature. First it was concentrated in the survivors of the northern glaciers, people of bleached skin, light-colored hair, and often blue-green eyes. High cortical, abstract intelligence is focused in our genetics. This biochemistry was/is not fundamentally incompatible with humans of other colorations then living in softer southern climes.

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(Login Melnorme)
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Is this a new wave? 'UP Supremacy'? - nt

May 26 2003, 9:28 AM 


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Paleo-Caucasoid Component in the Gene Pools of Altai–Sayan Ethnic Groups

May 26 2003, 11:02 AM 

Polymorphism of the Y-Chromosome Diallelic Loci in Ethnic Groups of the Altai–Sayan Region. Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2002, pp. 309–314. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2002, pp. 393–399.

Paleo-Caucasoid Component in the Gene Pools of Altai–Sayan Ethnic Groups

The 92R7-T allele is the marker defining a group of male lineages widely distributed among the population of Eurasia and indigenous populations of America. Recent studies on Y-chromosome lineage diversity in different populations of the world showed that the 92R7-T-derived haplotypes represent the ancient paleo-Caucasoid component, which by its origin is associated with the population of Central Eurasia [10]. High frequencies of the most ancient haplotype, defined by the 92R7-T/SRY1532-G allele combination (haplotype 4 in the present study, haplotype 1C in [11], haplotype HG1 in [12], and haplotype 10 in [10]), were observed in the populations from different geographic areas, namely, India (21.7%), Europe (37%), Ireland (98.5%, nearly fixation level), Western Siberia, including Kets (83.3%) and Sel’kups (76.2%), and also in the indigenous populations of America (35.2%) [10–12]. One of the derivatives of this central haplotype is defined by an additional mutation in the DYS199 locus (variant DYS199-T), which was found only among the indigenous populations of America [11, 18, 22]. Another haplotype was defined by the 92R7-T/SRY1532-A allele combination (haplotype 5 in the present study, haplotype 1D in [11], haplotype HG3 in [12], and haplotype 32 in [10]). It was practically absent from the populations of Africa, Eastern Asia, and America. At the same time, high frequencies of this haplotype were observed in the populations of Central and Eastern Europe (up to 50% in Russians, Poles, and Slovaks), Southeastern Asia (up to 32% in the populations of India, Pakistan, and Iran), and Altai (55%) [10–12, 23]. This wide distribution of Y-specific 92R7-T haplotypes can be explained by ancient migrations from Central Eurasia to Europe and America, and also by relatively recent (about 7.5 thousand years ago) migrations of the representatives of the mound culture from the Central Asia to the Indian subcontinent, Europe, and Siberia [10, 12, 23].

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More genetic evidence

May 26 2003, 11:11 AM 

"Chinese scientists have measured these various gene frequencies across
the modern populations of their country and these measurements provide
the basis for estimating the contribution of various Caucasoid-related
genes to the four minority groups in which we find them. Among the
Uyghurs, 'Caucasian genes' have been estimated at as much as 54 per cent
while the Kazakhs, who also occupy parts of Xinjiang, reveal about 34
per cent. To the east in Gansu we find the Dongxiangs with 25 percent
and still farther east in Ningxia are the Hui whose Caucasian admixture
is set at about 11-14 per cent
. From these figures, the trajectory of
Caucasian genetic influence in East Central Asia and East Asia seems
quite clear: it originates in the west and diminishes toward the east."

Victor H. Mair. New York, Thames and Hudson, 2000

As quoted here:

From: bagopian@w...
Date: Sun May 25, 2003 3:59 pm
Subject: Re: [north-euro-anthro] Re: Ainu

The Ainu

Someone made a statement that the Ainu have been found "by modern
genetic studies" to be Mongoloid and not Caucasoid. This is the liberal
dogma which is in vogue in the academic community today. It is expressed
in Luca Cavalli-Sforza's HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES. However,
in the same book he also says that the northern Chinese are more closely
related to Europeans than they are to the southern Chinese! His methods
are faulty.

Actually, studies of nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosomes,
HLA proteins, blood proteins, blood types, finger whorls, and physical
anthropology have all shown a connection between the Ainu and Europeans.
These can be found in the archives of the forums below.

The archaeological record shows that Caucasoids or semi-Caucasoids
spread Upper Paleolithic from Russia to Siberia. Then, they migrated to
northern China, Japan, and North America. This is the origin of the
light hair, fair skin, light eyes and Caucasoid features that were once
found among the Ainu, some Siberian peoples, and among the mummies of
North America such as the red-haired Spirit Cave Man or the Caucasoid
Kennewick Man.

Linguistic evidence also confirms this. Ainu is a member of the
Eurasiatic or Nostratic Macrofamily, which includes languages spoken by
Caucasoids such as the Indo-European Family and the Uralic Family.

Caucasoid Genes in Modern China

It has long been known among scholars that Caucasoids played a role in
the founding of Chinese civilization, and in a number of later periods,
including the Manchu Dynasty (1644-1911). Skeletons, art works, and
written descriptions all indicate that white people with red hair and
blue eyes lived at various times to the west and north of Chinese
civilization and often interacted with it. A comprehensive book on this
subject is EARLY EMPIRES OF CENTRAL ASIA, by McGovern. Much information
can also be found in the archives of the Ancient Nordics forum.
Many people have heard of the discovery of blond mummies in Xinjiang,
the northwestern part of China. Genetic studies of modern peoples have
also found Caucasoid genes a thousand miles further east, in the
vicinity of where Chinese Civilization first arose, between the Wei and
the Huang rivers. (Or, if you like, between the Wei Ho and the Huang
This is a quotation from 250 of THE TARIM MUMMIES, ANCIENT CHINA AND THE
Victor H. Mair. New York, Thames and Hudson, 2000:
"Chinese scientists have measured these various gene frequencies across
the modern populations of their country and these measurements provide
the basis for estimating the contribution of various Caucasoid-related
genes to the four minority groups in which we find them. Among the
Uyghurs, 'Caucasian genes' have been estimated at as much as 54 per cent
while the Kazakhs, who also occupy parts of Xinjiang, reveal about 34
per cent. To the east in Gansu we find the Dongxiangs with 25 percent
and still farther east in Ningxia are the Hui whose Caucasian admixture
is set at about 11-14 per cent. From these figures, the trajectory of
Caucasian genetic influence in East Central Asia and East Asia seems
quite clear: it originates in the west and diminishes toward the east."
Gansu was the area where a type of painted pottery appeared around 3000
BC which was similar to pottery found in Tripolye in the western Ukraine
and Anau in Turkmenistan. Gansu was also the area of origin of the
second dynasty, the Jou.
The authors of this book are evidently unaware of the
evidence of redheads and Caucasoids in ancient Mongolia and from the
last several centuries among native peoples of Manchuria and in Russia's
Maritime Province. Red hair, Caucasoid features and light eyes were also
found among the inhabitants Sakhalin Island ,the Kurilie Islands and
among the Ainu of northern Japan. Some of the Manchu, who conquered all
of East Asia in the 17th century, could have passed for Europeans. A
sculpture of a head, dating to around 3500 BC and found NORTHEAST of
Beijing, had Caucasoid features and blue stones for eyes. The sources
for these facts can be found in the archives of the Ancient Nordics

Cavalli-Sforza's Book - Caucasoid Genes in Siberia and Alaska
Précédent | Suivant

De: LARRY9198 12/05/2001 16:56 À: TOUS 1 de 1
310.1 Gothic is classified as East Germanic. Today, all living
Germanic languages are either West Germanic (like English, Dutch, and
German) or North Germanic (like Scandinavian). The Eastern branch is
Curiously, early Indo-Europeans all used the dual form as well as the
singular and plural forms.
Dual forms were common among many ancient and prehistoric languages,
including Semitic and early Egyptian. For some reason, the dual form has
died out almost everywhere.
However, some modern languages still use the dual, including some
Aborigine languages and Eskimo.
Eskimo is a Nostratic language and is said to be related to
Carleton Coon believed that Eskimo, Ainu, Yukaghirs, and Nivkhs were
once Caucasoids who still retain some Caucasoid traits. These Caucasoids
came east across Siberia from the Urals.
Let's look at the book LET'S LEARN ESKIMO.
house iglu
two houses igluk
houses iglut
I ik
we two wit
we (pl) weis
I uvanga
we two uvaguk
we (pl) uvagut
He ilaa
Those two ilingik
They ilingich
Joseph Greenberg discusses this in his INDO-EUROPEAN AND ITS CLOSEST
Page 101: "The coincidence of the pattern "k - dual", "t - plural"
between Samoyed (Uralic) and Eskimo was already noticed by Rasmus Rask
in the early nineteenth century."
Page 102: "But there are also Uralic languages in which a dual "k"
contrasts with a plural "t".
Page 103: "Even Ravila (1941:7), who argues against a -k plural in
Hungarian and elsewhere, does not deny the existence of a Uralic dual -k
based on the evidence from Ob-Ugric and Samoyed."
"In the Amur dialect of Gilyak the first-person dual pronoun is me-gi,
which contrasts with the first person plural inclusive me-r."
Page 105: "A number of duals in -ki are attested in Sakhalin Ainu in
Dobrotvorskij (1875)."
"That 'sik' is dual is also confirmed by Voznesenskij's hitherto
unpublished vocabulary of Kurile Ainu in Vovin (1993). Here we find
ar-sik 'a single eye,' in which ar=ara 'one of a pair' (cf.
Proto-Indo-European *al-i 'other,' Greek allos, Latin alius). thus
ar-sik means 'one of a pair of eyes.'"
"This suggests that the -k dual, which, as we have seen, takes the form
-ki in a number of languages, is to be identified with Turkish iki 'two'
and Yukaghir ki 'two'....Perhaps Hungarian ket 'two' and other related
forms in Uralic also belong here."
In THE LIVING RACES OF MAN, Carelton Coon has this to say about Ainus,
Gilyaks, and Eskimos:
Page 151: "Today the indications are that they were originally
Caucasoid, for the following reasons. The Ainu fingerprints show more
loops than whorls. This is a Caucasoid characteristic. Both among
Mongoloids and among Australoids whorls exceed loops. The Ainu have an
incidence of 63 percent of sticky earwax. Sticky earwax is
characteristic of Caucasoids; crumbly earwax of Mongoloids. The upper
incisor teeth of the Ainu, although they are shoveled in one third of
the individuals studied, do not show the extreme forms of shoveling seem
among most Mongoloids, but are rather like the moderately shoveled teeth
found occasionally in Northern Europe. Among the Ainu, upper molar teeth
have pearl-like excrescences of enamel along the outer gingival border
in 30 percent of the individuals studied. Three percent of Japanese
skulls also show this. Enamel pearls are also found among the Eskimo and
among Northern Europeans, particularly the medieval Icelanders....The
dental pearls of the Ainu, however, cannot be so easily accounted for,
and imply a genetic continuity. It would seem as if after the
Pleistocene had ended this genetic trait was carried eastward along the
ridge of the Siberian forest from the Urals to the Amur River, rather
than having moved in the opposite direction. In this trait as in others,
it would appear that the Eskimo may have started out Caucasoid and ended
up Mongoloid, the opposite of the Ottoman Turks.
"Whatever one may say of the Eskimo, it now seems most likely that the
Ainu are of Caucasoid origin. The same must be true in part of the
Gilyaks, another heavily bearded people of Sakhalin and the Lower Amur
River valley. Old photographs of other Paleo-Asiatic-speaking tribesmen,
like the Yukaghirs, also show European-like features, including beards."
Page 154: "The Ainu and Gilyaks probably owe their Caucasoid appearance
to an ancient migration from eastern Siberia."
Cavalli-Sforza in his HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF HUMAN GENES, also takes
the view that Europeans, northeast Asians and Eskimos are related. He
believes that northern Mongoloids like the Japanese and northern Chinese
are more closely related to Europeans than they are to southern Chinese,
whom he groups with southeast Asians.
He obviously is confused. What the genetic data does show is evidence of
a prehistoric Caucasoid invasion that swept across northern Asia into
North America. Modern Arctic peoples are part Caucasoid, whereas
southeast Asians are part Australoid.

Ancient human
http://land.sfo.ru/eng/6_7.htm Changed:3:50 AM on Wednesday, February 7,

Iberia, not Siberia?

Most people believe that Native Americans were Mongoloids who came over
a land bridge from Siberia. This is indeed a large part of their origin.
However, in recent years, there has been growing evidence of people from
other races and continents coming to the Americas in prehistoric times.
This is in addition to evidence of possible ancient migrations such as
from Phoenicia, Ireland, Scandinavia, and China.
Remains of racially Australoid people have been found in SOUTH America.
How on earth could they have gotten there? The most likely hypothesis
seems to be that they followed the Pacific coastline north to Beringia
and then came down the west coast to South America. A journey by boat
across the Pacific seems highly unlikely, but it is believed that
ancestors of Aborigines crossed 60 miles of open ocean 50,000 years ago
to come to Australia, so perhaps it's not impossible.
Next, there is evidence of prehistoric Caucasoid invasions coming from
two directions, Siberia and Europe! Most Native Americans speak
languages of the Amerindian Family, but some speak languages of the
Na-Dené Family, which is part of the Dené-Caucasian Macrofamily,
which includes Basque, Chechen, and Chinese. This would be the origin of
Caucasoid mummies, some with red hair, which have been found in western
Canada and the American northwest, in association with the Cascade
Culture of about 7,000 BC.
But, believe it or not, there is also evidence of yet another invasion,
from Europe. The earliest hunters of the North American plains are known
as Clovis. There is no evidence of them coming from Siberia, but they do
resemble the Solutrean of France! In addition, the oldest Clovis
artifacts are not from the northwest. They are from the Atlantic coast!
In fact, they are found on the continental shelf underwater in the
Atlantic Ocean. Underwater archaeologist Michael Faught hypothesized
they would be there. He went diving off the coast of Florida and found
Below are two articles on this. The first one is very long. It includes
a detailed genetic analysis of Native Americans. Some eastern Indians,
such as the Ojibway, have both mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes which
indicate a European origin which could not be due to recent mixing with
whites. Their closest genetic relatives, with respect to these genes are
the Finns!
During the Ice Age, the Atlantic Ocean shrunk somewhat. The ice moved
south. It would have been possible for Stone Age hunters to travel along
the southern edges of the ice across Britain, Iceland, and Greenland to
eastern Canada. This would explain why the Clovis artifacts of North
America are so similar to the Solutrian artifacts of France. It would
also explain the European appearance of some Native Americans, which was
already apparent to the first modern European explorers.

Team Atlantis - Research Papers
Changed:12:39 AM on Friday, January 12, 2001

Office of Research: Research In Review: Cover Story: Florida's First
Changed:8:12 PM on Friday, May 16, 2003


The Sino-Caucasian Language Family

What is the Sino-Caucasian language family? It is a family of related
languages that includes Chinese, Chechen, Basque, and Navaho. How could
languages from such places that are so far apart be related?
Sino-Caucasian formed during the end of the Ice Age in northern Eurasia.
Similar culture, technology, racial type and language extended from
France to central Siberia. These Ice Age hunters expanded east into
North America, where they gave rise to the Caucasoid or Ainu-like
Kennewick Man in Washington and Spirit Cave Man in Nevada.
The Sino-Caucasian family is also known as the Dene-Caucasian Family.
Dené comes from the Navaho word for Navaho. I did a google search and
found 3 entries under Dené-Caucasian, 205 entries under
Dene-Caucasian, and 137 entries under Sino-Caucasian. Sino- stands for
One branch of Sino-Caucasian, called either Nostratic or Eurasiatic,
overran much of the original Sino-Caucasian territory, leaving only
pockets of non-Nostratic languages. These non-Nostratic languages are
called Sino-Caucasian.
What are the modern Sino-Caucasian languages? Chinese is by far the best
known. It belongs to the Sino-Tibetan family (a subgroup of
Sino-Caucasian). Sino-Tibetan also includes Tibetan and Burmese. Basque
is a member of this family. In the Caucasus Mountains there are Chechen,
Ingush and the 50 languages of Daghestan. There is a language spoken by
a few thousand people in Siberia called Ket. There is a language spoken
in or near Kashmir called Burushashki. Then, there are the Na-Dené
languages which are spoken in western Canada. About a thousand years
ago, some of these Na-Dené migrated south to Arizona. this is the
origin of the Navajo language, the most widely spoken native language in
the United States.
Some scholars believe that Sumerian, the language of the world's first
civilization, was Sino-Caucasian, but others classify it as Nostatic.
I found a map of the world's languages which shows this family, under
the name Dene-Caucasian. It shows red for Basque, a tiny patch of red in
Siberia for Ket, a big patch of red for Chinese, Tibetan, and Burmese, a
big patch of red in western Canada for Na-Dené, and a misplaced patch
of red in Texas, which should be in Arizona. Australia is a different
shade of red, but Australian languages have nothing to do with
World Map of Language Families
This map is slightly inaccurate and ambiguous, but still gives a general
idea of the world's major language families.

Figure 5

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May 26 2003, 11:38 AM 

"including Kets (83.3%) and Sel’kups (76.2%), "

Do you remember last year when I made the "calculator", it placed British near the Selkups? May be the old component was the cause.


"Southeastern Asia (up to 32% in the populations of India, Pakistan, and Iran)"

Actually, the level of HG3 is around 39-42 in Indo-Aryan speaking Indian population.

Bengalis 39%, Bombay Brahmins 42%, Punjabi Lobana 44%, and so on.

Source: Am J Hum Genet 72:313-332

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May 26 2003, 11:42 AM 

how your calculator calculates the distance?

your own formula?

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Simple algebraic formula. Nothing complicated... no discriminants.

May 26 2003, 11:45 AM 

Just based on numbers.

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This is how I use it

May 26 2003, 12:00 PM 

Most of them use this:

Say, PopXXX has HG1=10%, HG=20%, HG3=30%, HG4=40%, and PopYYY has HG1=40%, HG2=30%, HG3-20%, HG4=10%.

I(actually, the computer does all the calculation using the server-side programming script) calculated the distance by:

$value= |(HG1PopXXX - HG1PopYYY)| + ... + |(HG4PopXXX - HG4PopYYY)|
$distance = $value/4

So, distance = {|(10-40)| + |(20-30)| + |(30-20)| + |(40-10)|}/4

= {30+10+10+30}/4 = 20

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(Login hdd523)
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Because of the the shared haplotype: 1C

May 26 2003, 11:43 AM 

Frequency of haplotype 1C:

British - 69%
Selkups - 76%

http://www.racearchives.com/calc/haplo_data.asp?dbname=Ychrom60pops&orderby=ht1C&orderby_mode=desc << Has frequencies for the haplotype 1C... entered a year earlier.

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(Login x956)
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Paleo-Caucasoid Y-chromosomes in Africa

May 26 2003, 1:11 PM 

A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. Am. J. Hum. Genet., 70:1197-1214, 2002

With the exception of a single Y chromosome from Morocco with the M269 mutation (haplotype 117b), all group IX African chromosomes are characterized by the presence of the M173 and M207 derived alleles and the absence of the downstream mutations (haplotype 117). Haplotype 117 was found only in Cameroon, where it accounts for 26% of the chromosomes (40% in northern Cameroon). Chromosomes from Cameroon with this haplotype are the same as those reported in a previous article as belonging to haplotype 1C (Scozzari et al. 1999).

[. . .]

Group IX Chromosomes in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Asian Origin?

[. . .]

How can the presence of Group IX chromosomes at considerable frequency in Cameroon be explained? A priori, we can envision three possibilities. First, group IX chromosomes in Cameroon are due to rather recent male gene flow from Europe or the Near East. Second, the entire M9 superclade (haplogroups VIIX) has an African origin. Third, group IX chromosomes in Cameroon represent a footprint of a male back migration from Asia to Africa. The first scenario seems to be very unlikely, because only derived haplotypes, carrying the M269 or M17/SRY10831 mutations, have been detected in western Eurasia. The second hypothesis, an African origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117, would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa, since no other haplotypes carrying the M9 mutation (haplogroups VIIX) have been observed in this region (the only exception being represented by a few haplotype 109 chromosomes found in the Fulbe from Cameroon). The last scenario, that of a back migration from Asia to Africa, currently appears to be by far the most plausible. This is because most of the M9 haplotypes (the majority of group VII and VIII lineages, as well as some group IX and X lineages reported by Underhill et al. [2000]) have been observed only in Asia. Moreover, this possibility appears to be further supported by the recent finding of the UTY2+/M173- intermediate haplotype (Karafet et al. 2001) in central and northeastern Asia (the UTY2 marker in the study by Karafet et al. [2001] corresponds to M207 in the present study).

On the basis of phylogeographic Y-haplotype analyses, Asia has been regarded as the source of several old migrations leading to the peopling of America, Oceania, and Europe (Karafet et al. 1999; Santos et al. 1999; Hammer et al. 2001; Underhill et al. 2001b; Wells et al. 2001; Lell et al. 2002). In particular, M173-bearing chromosomes in Europe are considered to delineate an ancient expansion from Asia during the Upper Paleolithic, 30,000 years ago (Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001b; Wells et al. 2001). It is quite reasonable to hypothesize that an ancient Asian gene pool was the source of both the European (haplotype 117b) and Cameroonian (haplotype 117) M173 chromosomes. The fact that haplotype 117 is rare or absent in Asia (P.A.U., unpublished data) or the Middle East (present study), suggests that a large portion of its microsatellite diversity in Cameroon accumulated within the African continent after the proposed back-migration event, probably as a consequence of a population expansion. The coalescence age of the African haplotype 117, which we estimated as 4,100 years (95% CI 2,4008,060 years), could thus represent a date for such an expansion and a lower limit for the time of entry into Africa. The occurrence of the latter event may not necessarily be recent. Although anthropological evidence indicates recent movements between western Asia and Africa by pastoralists (Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1994), the phylogeography and diversity patterns of M173-associated lineages suggest an earlier demographic history. The absence in northern Cameroon of Y haplotypes affiliated with the recolonization of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum, as well as the subsequent Neolithic transition (Semino et al. 2000), is consistent with this interpretation. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of primate T-cell lymphotropic viruses type 1 indicate a putative Asian origin (Vandamme et al. 1998) followed by a simian- or human-mediated introduction to Africa 20,000 years ago (Van Dooren et al. 2001).

An ancient human back migration from Asia to Africa had already been proposed by Altheide and Hammer (1997) and Hammer et al. (1998, 2001), on the basis of nested cladistic analysis of Y-chromosome data. They suggested that the presence of YAP+ chromosomes in Africa was due to such an event, but this has recently been questioned by Underhill et al. (2001b) and Underhill and Roseman (2001), primarily on the basis of the Asian-specific YAP+ subclade that neutralizes the previous phylogenetic inferences. Thus, the only evidence of a migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa that is fully supported by Y-chromosome data relies, at least for the moment, on the finding of haplogroup IX chromosomes in Cameroon.

Interestingly, a frequency of 13% has been previously reported in an Egyptian sample for a group of chromosomes defined as haplotype 1C (Scozzari et al. 1999) and closely related to the M173 chromosomes. Unfortunately, this sample was not available for the present study. Although we cannot define more precisely the haplotype of the Egyptian 1C Y chromosomes, it is worth noting that four of six of these chromosomes showed dinucleotide microsatellite haplotypes that matched or were one-step neighbors of the M173 chromosomes found in Cameroon.

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Eurocentric Myths
(Login JonathanTate)

Utter nonsense!

May 26 2003, 7:57 PM 

Whats intereasting is that none of the northern Cameroonian people show the slightest trace of paleo-Caucasoid mixture let alone Cro-Magnoid traits. And who's to say that tis haplotype is Cro-Magnoid? Cro-magnoids did not descend from Northern Europeans even if all of this were true they're NOT your people.

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(Login xxLKxx)

Actually, its not.

June 3 2003, 12:06 PM 

Remember, the N. Cameroonians referred to are Fulani, Hausa, or similar such groups. This "admixture" (which is also found in Nigeria, if I remember correctly) is most probably the result of past admixture with Berbers from a time when these groups were situated much closer together.

In the alternative, it is believed by the locals that a band of Egyptians migrated there long ago.

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(Login x956)
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Paleo-Caucasoid ancestry in the Middle East

May 26 2003, 1:36 PM 

M17 (HG3) -- marking a post-glacial expansion of Proto-Europid types, probably from north of the Black Sea

Iraqis .... 6.5%
Lebanese .. 9.7%
Turks ..... 6.6%
Syrians ... 10.0%

total M173 (including M17) (HG1 + HG3) -- total Central Eurasian Paleo-Caucasoid ancestry

Iraqis .... 17.3%
Lebanese .. 16.1%
Turks ..... 16.5%
Syrians ... 25.0%

The Eurasian haplogroups, R-M269 and R-M17, represent the second most frequent component of the Iraqi Y-chromosome gene pool. The R-M17 cluster distribution and its 49a,f associations suggest that the population movements from Central Asia/Eastern Europe into the modern Iran postulated by Quintana-Murci et al. (2001) also influenced Iraq. Indeed, the R-M17 shows a frequency of 6.5% in Iraq which falls in the lower edge (3–9%) of the range observed in the Iranian populations living at the border of Iraq.

[. . .]

Although the level of resolution of our analyses does not allow an evaluation of the back migrations of widely distributed haplogroups, it is possible to identify some European, African, and Asian signature markers in both male and female gene pools of modern Iraqis. Overall, these external long-range input appear to represent about 9% of mtDNAs and 30% of Y-chromosomes. MtDNA gene flow is revealed by the presence of the European haplogroups V and U5 (1.4%), the North African haplogroup U6 (0.9%), the sub-Saharan African haplogroups L1 and L2 (4.2%), and the East-Asian haplogroups M and B (2.3%). As for the Y chromosome, the African input is represented by the haplogroup E (12.2%), the input from Eastern Europe/Central Asia is revealed by R-M269/49a,f haplotypes 35 with its derivative 47 and R-M17 (15.9%), while haplogroup I and R-M269/49a,f haplotype 15 Y chromosomes indicate a limited gene flow from Europe (1.4%). The different extent of male and female external contribution observed in the Iraqi gene pool is a frequent observation in this kind of studies and often finds an explanation in the different male and female social behavior (Excoffier et al., 1996; Huoponen et al., 1997; Passarino et al., 1998; Perez-Lezaun et al., 1999; Salem et al., 1996; Scozzari et al., 1997; Seielstad et al., 1998; Torroni et al., 1994). However, it has also to be taken into account that the level of resolution of the mtDNA markers used in this study could be lower than that reached by the Y-chromosome counterparts.

Source: N. Al-Zahery et al. Y-chromosome and mtDNA polymorphisms in Iraq, a crossroad of the early human dispersal and of post-Neolithic migrations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press.

This message has been edited by x956 on May 26, 2003 1:38 PM

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(Login rarog)
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Re: Paleo-Caucasoid ancestry in the Middle East

May 26 2003, 2:31 PM 

It seems that at least most of HG3 distribution is due to the BA expansion: Norway and Germany (proto-Germanics), Poland, Hungary, Russia (Slavs), SE Russia, Kazakhstan, Western Siberia - Iranians. That's all backed by skeletal evidence. Most likely that HG3 presence in India is also due to the BA expansion.

BAs were presented in ancient Iraq, and actually Slavs penetrated as far as Asia Minor and Syria, and settled there in significant numbers.

Probably Dnepr-Donetz UP types were proto-HG3/HG1 and HG12/16... surely they weren't HG3, as it's not recorded in significant numbers in several Siberian groups based on the Dnepr-Donetz type... which in turn is similar to one of 2 basic Europid Mesolithic types...

Anyway, Anon, how do you feel about posting anthropological evidence that HG12/16 appeared in the Caucasoid population of EE and WS? I'll supply you of necessary citations from Alexeev and Gokhman.

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(Login Melnorme)
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Physical anthropology detects East Baltics in Leb. and Syria, not just Nordics - nt

May 26 2003, 2:32 PM 


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(Login rarog)
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Slavs were BA. EB = North-Europid + a bit of Mongolid = blonde Europid with minor Mogoloid

May 26 2003, 2:35 PM 


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(Login Melnorme)
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Yes. My point is, these Slavic migrations - which I believe did happen - were not pure BAs

May 26 2003, 2:35 PM 

they already had some East Baltics mixed in with them. I have personally seen some of these types, btw.

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(Login rarog)
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It's possible

May 26 2003, 2:41 PM 

but rather they became intermixed on the place... anyway, Dienekes won't like your idea LOL

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(Login Dienekes_Pontikos)
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The Slavs that came to Greece were dolichocephalic

May 26 2003, 3:46 PM 

they are unrelated to the Finno-Ugric/Slavic/Turkic mix also known as "Russians".

:: dienekes.com/BLOG ::

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Corded to the Core
(Login ProdigalSon)
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Wrong Turk. Lundman detected East Baltic types in Greece...

June 2 2003, 1:59 PM 

This message has been edited by ProdigalSon on Jun 2, 2003 2:07 PM

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