Articles In Urdu Dailies Explain The Islamic Thoughts Of Pakistan's Islamist 'National Poet' Muhammad Iqbal
Mohammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877-April 21, 1938) is the unofficial national poet of Pakistan, celebrated by religious organizations in Pakistan and India for his Islamist views. He is regularly quoted by the Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan and the Pakistani Taliban in order to advance their Islamic view of what a Pakistani and Islamic state should look like. Iqbal also wrote in praise of socialism and disparaged democracy, under which he felt people are counted, rather than being valued for their worth.
In November 2011, seminaries and conferences were organized, like every year, in various Pakistani cities to mark Iqbal's birthday and to re-examine his ideas and their relationship with Islam as well as his role in promulgating the idea of Pakistan based on the Two-Nation Theory, i.e. the concept that Hindus and Muslims cannot live together and therefore leading to the creation of Pakistan. Muhammad Iqbal is also credited with creating the idea of Mard-e-Momin (the perfect believing Muslim), an idea used by South Asian Islamists and supposedly borrowed by Iqbal from Nietzsche's idea of "superman" when he was a student in Germany.
In the articles below from Urdu-language Pakistani newspapers, Iqbal's thoughts and their relationships with Islam and Pakistan are examined by Pakistani writers. Excerpts are given from "Iqbal's Thoughts And Today's Pakistan" written by Saadullah Shah in Roznama Nawa-i-Waqt; "Iqbal's Concept Of Islam" written by Maulana Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil in Roznama Jang; and "Iqbal's Understanding Of The Koran Part 1, II And III" written by Mian Mohammad Sayeed Shad in Roznama Nawa-i-Waqt.
"The Fruit Of The Tree Of Iqbal's Thought Is [The Creation Of] Pakistan; This Tree Has Been Watered By The Tears That Came Out Of Love For Prophet Muhammad; The Basis Of This Ideological Building Is The Koran And Hadith"
Following are excerpts from Saadullah Shah's article:
"The Punjab government should be appreciated for organizing programs on 'Thoughts Of Iqbal And Today's Pakistan' in various colleges so that the young generation could understand the idea of Pakistan and the factors behind that idea. The biggest program was organized at Jinnah Hall of the Government Islamia College, Lahore [in November 2011]. Punjab Education Minister Mian Shujaur Rahman was the chief guest while the principal of the college Farhan Ibadat Yarkhan chaired the program. Prominent broadcaster and poet Professor Salimur Rahman was the compere of the program.
"Before I say something about the program I wish to mention some of the aspects of Iqbal's thoughts. I want to address the cognizance of the youth because youth were the real addressee of Iqbal: 'I have love those youth, who scale the stars [Urdu couplet of Iqbal].'
"The fruit of the tree of Iqbal's thought is [the creation of] Pakistan. This tree has been watered by the tears that came out of love for Prophet Muhammad. The basis of this ideological building is the Koran and Hadith [sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad]. How concisely an [unidentified] man with vision put it: 'Iqbal is the Koran amongst poets and a poet of the Koran.' Nature had bestowed upon him high intelligence and a heart awake. He was destined to be rightly guided.
"The prudence of Momin [perfect Muslim] made him the Hakim [doctor] of the Ummah [Muslims]. He gave honor to poetry: 'If the goal of poetry is to make Adam [man] shed tears, then our poetry becomes the inheritor of the Prophet.' His foresightedness and lofty ideas is evident from his poems. He was under the gamut of light and aware of the hearts' feelings. He did not like the music and festivity of the West. The charm and magic of that place proved ineffective on him. He had the reason for it: [the couplet is missing here]."
Iqbal Wrote Of Martyrdom And Power: "This Martyrdom, As If It's Treading In The Path Of Love; People Think It's Easy To Become A Muslim; Being Moses is Futile and Baseless, If There is No Stick [Power in Hand]"
"Iqbal doesn't have any care in this regard and does not hesitate to address the 'beholders of robe and gown' [clerics] with these words: Come out of your Khanqahs [monasteries], perform the obligations of the path of Shabbir [Shabbir is Imam Hussein, who preferred martyrdom during the battle of Karbala].' With much pain, he says: 'There is not a single Hussein in the caravan of Hijaz' [i.e. there is no single Hussein in the whole Arab world]. He has been dead against laziness, lethargy, lame excuses, and he made Satan say: 'I'm like a thorn in the eyes of Yazdaan [Persian equivalent of God]; and you are only Allahu, Allahu, Allahu [reciting the name of Allah].'
"[Iqbal wrote:] 'All praise is to Allah, the doctor [the Prophet of the Ummah gave the prescription of life, in these words:] the one prostration which you find hard to do, it delivers the people from doing thousands of prostrations.'
"Let's see the beauty of Iqbal's thought in this couplet also: 'This martyrdom, as if it's treading in the path of love; People think it's easy to become a Muslim.' Iqbal emphasizes much upon Muslims to unify their power. Acquiring power is very important because 'being Moses is futile and baseless, if there is no stick [power in hand].' Allah has also ordered us to be prepared with our horses. And according to honorable Majeed Nizami [Editor-in-Chief and publisher of Nawa-i-Waqt Group of Publications], 'our horses are our nuclear weapons.'"
Iqbal Said: "O Ye The Birds Of Other World [Muslim Youth]! Death Is Better Than The Food, The Food That Brings Laziness In The Flight"
"There are many things to say but let me say something about the program. Mian Shujaur Rahman spoke at length at this program. He mentioned the glorious past of the Islamia College, Civil Lines [Lahore], saying that it was the first college of Muslims. The youth of this college were the vanguards of the Pakistan movement [leading to creation of Pakistan]. He said that he has pride to be associated with the Muslim League (N) [the ruling party of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in Punjab province]. The Muslim League was the founding party of Pakistan. He said that the role model of Nawaz Sharif has been Qaed [Mohammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan] and [poet Muhammad] Iqbal.
"He [i.e. Mian Shujaur Rahman] said that today's Pakistan could be made beautiful only through the thoughts of Iqbal. Muslims should unite like the sugar mixes in the milk, but it's not so. Such a people have become the claimant of Iqbal that we are worried of Iqbal himself. Please look at the government and compare it with the thought of Iqbal: 'O ye the birds of other world [Muslim youth]! Death is better than the food, the food that brings laziness in the flight.'
"And then Iqbal says: 'When you bowed before someone other than Allah, you have lost your body and soul both.' Our people have not bowed down; they are lying down. They are getting their own people killed by [U.S.] drone attacks [in the Pakistani tribal region]. Leave it, 'how long will you listen to and how long will I narrate to you [unclear if the couple is of Iqbal].' However, Punjab government did a good job that it made an arrangement to get to know the thoughts of Iqbal.
"'Thoughts of Iqbal and today's Pakistan' is subtle satire too. I wish we could make this Pakistan coherent with the thoughts of Iqbal. None can do this alone. The answer of this dream is in unity. Long Live Pakistan!"
"We, The Pakistanis, Remember Iqbal With The Titles Of 'Poet Of East,' 'Philosopher,' 'Promulgator Of The Idea Of Pakistan,' 'Hakim [Visionary] Of The Community' And 'Interpreter Of Islam'"
Following are excerpts from Maulana Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil's article:
"We, the Pakistanis, remember Allama [a title used for the scholar of high degree] Iqbal with the titles of 'Poet of East,' 'philosopher,' 'promulgator of the idea of Pakistan,' 'Hakim [doctor] of the community' and 'interpreter of Islam.' And because of his heightened position we call him our 'national poet;' we celebrate his birth and death anniversaries with all respect and honor as a national day. Seminars and symposia are organized in relation to the teachings of Iqbal round the year. Learned people and intellectuals keep on shedding light on various aspects of the teachings of Iqbal through their essays, [scholarly] papers and statements.
"Preachers, sermonizers, speakers, politicians and reformers find it an honor to use Iqbal's couplets to make their preaching, sermons, speeches and statements ornate. We also feel a kind of spiritual satisfaction by listening to the verses of Iqbal in the voice of Qawwals [a kind of singers], male and female singers and Naat singers [those who sing verses in praise of Prophet Muhammad].
"But besides these, I would like to say that the position of Iqbal is much higher. The role of Iqbal has been great in the awakening of Muslims of the [Indian] subcontinent by informing them about their glorious past. There is no parallel in the Islamic history the way Iqbal interpreted the teachings of Islam in his own philosophic style. First of all we must accept the fact that Allama Iqbal was not only a poet but he was also a true interpreter of Islamic politics in the contemporary period. It is not the only favor of Iqbal on the Muslims of the subcontinent that he woke us up from our forgetfulness but he gave Muslims the idea of Pakistan, informed them about the Two-Nation Theory [that Hindus and Muslims cannot live together] and marked the line for the attainment of Pakistan."
"Through His Verses [Iqbal] Also Showed The Way To The Muslims Of The Subcontinent For A Definitive And Permanent Solution To The Problems And Difficulties That The Inhabitants Of Pakistan, [To Be] Created In The Name Of Islam, Would Face In The Future"
"Through his verses [Iqbal] also showed the way to the Muslims of the] subcontinent for a definitive and permanent solution to the problems and difficulties that the inhabitants of Pakistan, created in the name of Islam, would face in the future. We call the faith in the 'unity of the Sustainer' and the 'unity of humans' as a part of our faith and think that it has nothing to do with our practical life.
"It is the outcome of this very thinking that we don't find the division of Muslims into various groups improper; instead we call factionalism the very Islamic thing. While in the views of Iqbal the faith in the unity of God and the unity of human is the axis of Islamic teachings and it is also the solution of all problems and difficulties faced not only by Muslims but by all the human beings.
'There was a time when this very monotheism [i.e. Islam] was a living power in this world;
And today it has become only an issue of scholarly debate.'
'What is there if wisdom says La Ilaha [There is no deity but Allah];
It is nothing, unless the heart and the vision become Muslim.'
'What is the gain if you proclaim monotheism by your tongue;
When you have made your conceit your god?'
"The interpretation of Islamic teachings in the words of Iqbal makes it clear that the demand of the faith in the 'oneness of God' is the unity of individual and community. The more this concept of faith in the unity of God is practiced and the more it is strong and comprehensive the more it will create coherence and unity in the people of society. And this very unity and coherence would provide the only definite solution to all the difficulties and problems of human society. Islam doesn't have any other solution to the problems and difficulties of the human beings. It doesn't have the lamp of Aladdin or any other charm to solve all the problems in a snap of fingers."
"The Momin Who Follows The Islam Of Iqbal Is Directly Linked With The Followers Of Prophet Muhammad, And This Relationship With The People Of Prophet Muhammad Is The Strongest Of All Human Relations"
"The universal man [the faithful Muslim, in the thoughts] of Iqbal does not only recite the holy Koran, but in fact reads it and understands it that he is the real one which has been described in the Koran, and the very manifestation of Allah. In other words, he becomes a source of leading other people to Allah:
'This secret is not known to all;
That Momin [pure Muslim, the idea of superman taken from Nietzsche], who seems to be reading the Koran;
Is himself the Koran.'
'Every trait of a Momin is a new honor and grace for him;
He is the manifestation of Allah in his sayings and character.'
"The Momin who follows the Islam of Iqbal is directly linked with the followers of Prophet Muhammad, and this relationship with the people of Prophet Muhammad is the strongest of all human relations and occupies a distinct place too. That is why there is no comparison to the greatness and grandeur of this relationship with any other relationship:
'Do not think about your community on the lines of the Western nations,
The people of Prophet Muhammad are special in their make.'
'Their [Western] unity rests upon the country and race,
And your unity is consolidated by the power of religion.'
"The basis of the relation of Iqbal's Mard-e-Momin [Perfect Muslim, the superman] with all the human beings is faith; and faith gets strengthened with organization; and organization always comes into being with the complete harmony and unanimity of people and society. The grace and honor of Muslims remain safeguarded until there is the organization and they face no internal or external problems. And the moment this organization is gone from among Muslims, they get divided into groups, then all kinds of internal and external problems become their fate:
'Your honor was there due to your association with the community;
When this association was no more, you were disgraced in the world.'
"The community is there because of religion and when there is no religion you don't count;
'When there is no unanimity then, there is no organization [constellation] of stars.'"
"Iqbal's Poetry, In Fact, Is The Interpretation Of The Koran And Sunnah [Deeds And Sayings Of Prophet Muhammad]"
Following are excerpts from the first part of Mian Mohammad Sayeed Shad's article:
"Iqbal's poetry, in fact, is the interpretation of the Koran and Sunnah [deeds and sayings of Prophet Muhammad]. Please find some examples below. First of all look at the verses from the Koran, which is followed by verses from Iqbal.
"The Koran: 'Behold! You are those who are called to spend in the Cause of Allah, yet among you are some who are niggardly. And whoever is niggardly, it is only at the expense of his own self. But Allah is rich (Free of all needs), and you (mankind) are poor. And if you turn away (from Islam and the obedience to Allah), He will exchange you from some other people and they will not be your likes.' (Surah: Muhammad, Verse 38).
"That is - when a nation/community keeps trying to fulfill its obligations, Allah's support and help remains with it. But when a nation/community does not appreciate this bounty and avoids sacrificing its life and becomes niggardly in spending in the path of Allah, and the evidence of laziness and indolence are seen in their activities, then it is warned appropriately on its failings.
"And if it does not amend itself, then it is dismissed from its high position and some other nation/community is honored to take up that responsibility. That new nation/community does not hesitate in either risking their life or spending their wealth. History is witness to it that it has happened like this and Holy Koran says that it will be so always. The nations/communities or the persons who are holding this position should have the cognizance of the critical responsibilities with their position and should be alert at all levels so that there is no lapse in the fulfillment of their obligations.
'Muslims are ill-bread and dressed in rough and coarse clothes,
And whose activities have put Gabriel under tumult.
'Having come to demolish the mark of other communities,
As if this community has become a burden on the world [Persian quartet of Iqbal]'"
Iqbal Wrote: "A Muslim May Be In The Captivity Of The British; But His Heart Cannot Be Captured"
"The Koran says: 'By Al Asr (the time). Verily, man is in loss. Except those who believe (in Islamic monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, and recommend one another to the truth [i.e. order one another to perform all kinds of good deeds which Allah has ordained, and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds, which Allah has forbidden] and recommend one another to patience (for the sufferings, harms, and injuries which one may encounter in Allah's Cause during preaching His religion of Islamic Monotheism or Jihad). (Surah Al-Asr; Verses 1-3)
"The following couplets from Iqbal's poem 'Masjid-e-Qurtaba' [Mosque of Cordoba] are the exegesis of Surah Al Asr:
'The chain of night and days contains engravings of incidents,
The chain of night and days are the essence of life and death.
'The chain of night and days are the two fine silken colors,
With which the personality weaves its clothe of character.
'The chain of night and days is the sound of the time immemorial,
With which the ultimate being shows the vicissitudes of possibilities.
'It tests you and it also tests me;
The chain of night and days reflects the patience of the universe.
'If you're substandard and if I'm substandard;
The order of death is for you and death is for me.
'What else is the truth of your days and nights?
It is a stream of time which has neither day nor night.'
"The Koran says: 'Were We then tired with the first creation? Nay, they are in confused doubt about a new creation (i.e. Resurrection)' [Surah Qaaf; Verse 15].
"[The Koran says:] 'And indeed We have created man, and We know what his ownself whispers to him. And we are nearer to him than his jugular vein (by Our Knowledge)' [Surah Qaaf; Verse 16].
"In other words, O the people of Mecca! Do you think that creating these innumerable men again is a difficult task? Do you think that We got tired after creating this vast system of the earth and they skies? Now We don't have the power to create you afresh? What childish and wayward things are you talking about?
'What should I say the story of this religion and country;
It is the story beyond description.
'Don't get worried with me, because of your disloyalty,
I have made this old world anew.
'A Muslim may be in the captivity of the British,
But his heart cannot be captured.
'Scores of heads that are bowed before others,
Cannot bring the reward of the prostration of Abuzar and Salman [the two companions of Prophet Muhammad] [Persian verses]'"
Iqbal Wrote: "They [Early Muslims] Were Respectable In The World By Being Muslims; And You Are Disgraced By Leaving The Koran"
"The Koran: 'Truly, We have set veils over their hearts lest they should understand this (the Koran), and in their ears, deafness. And if you (O Muhammad) call them to guidance, even then they will never be guided. And your Lord is Most Forgiving, Owner of Mercy. Were He to call them to account for what they have earned, then surely He would have hastened their punishment. But they have their appointed time, beyond which they will find no escape.' (Surah: Al Kahaf; Verses 57-58)
'If you want to live like a Muslim; it is not possible without living by Koran;
By leaving Koran you have become critical of the changing time.' [Persian couplet]
'They [early Muslims] were respectable in the world by being Muslims,
And you are disgraced by leaving the Koran.
"The Koran: 'So do not become weak (against your enemy), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers' (Surah: Al Imran; Verse 139).
"Iqbal (unpublished work): Why to fear from evil if your aim is virtuous; your charm would frighten the Satan. (Jahan-e-Iqbal by Abdur Rahman Tariq)
"The Koran: '[Tell them of O Muhammad] And when I am ill, it is He who cures me' (Surah: Shuara; Verse 80).
"Iqbal had this firm belief that when a person falls ill, only Allah cures him. That is why he always preferred the medicinal practices of the Prophet [Muhammad] over modern medical practices and always preferred to get herbal medicine, as it is proved from the following two incidents:
a) [Renowned herbal medicine doctor] Hakim Abdul Wahab Nabina [blind] had such a gift of diagnosis [of diseases] by putting fingers on the vein that renowned doctors wished to have that. Allama Iqbal had much faith on the diagnosis of Hakim Nabina. Once he developed a stone in his kidney. Doctors found that operation is the only way out and that it should be performed in Vienna.
"But on the recommendation of some friends treatment of Hakim Nabina was initiated. Hakim sahib used the Unani medicine for the removal of stone. In such cases he used to use a distinct kind of preparations of Hajrul Yahud [Jewish stone] and used to give it with other medicines. By the grace of Allah all the stones from the kidney of Iqbal got removed. None of them could be seen in the X-ray and Iqbal never complained of it.
b) Once, Allama Iqbal fell seriously ill in Lahore. Doctors had lost hope and so had the family members. But Hakim Nabina was consulted on the wishes of Allama Iqbal. Hakim Sahib was in Delhi at that time. After listening to the condition, Hakim Sahib diagnosed that vital organs have been under tremendous pressure and because of that there is such a weakness. He sent nutritional medicine along with his own preparation 'Roohuz Zahab' (a kind of medicine which contained gold also)."
At A Conference In Lahore, Iqbal Said: "You Have Taken To Thousands Of Treatments To Defy Your Problems; Now Try One Medicine Of Muhammad Of Arabia"
Following are excerpts from the second part of Mian Mohammad Sayeed Shad's article:
"After sometime Iqbal was cured by Hakim Nabina's treatment, and after that he sent two couplets for Hakim Sahib as a gesture of gratitude. These couplets made the treatment famous:
'My body of clay is the abode of two spirits;
One has the passion and love and the other has the power and guts.
'One is the fresh beginning which Allah bestowed upon me;
And the other is the medicine 'Roohuz Zahab' which you sent to me. (The Kora, Al Furqan)
"The Koran: 'And hold fast, all of you together, to the rope of Allah (i.e. this Koran), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah's favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to you, that you may be guided.' (Surah: Al Imran; Verse 103)
"A general conference of Muslims of Lahore was held on June 3, 1931. Chairing the conference, Allama sahib [Iqbal] said: 'You have taken to thousands of treatments to defy your problems; now try one medicine of Muhammad of Arabia (peace be upon him). Prophet says, 'Unity of My followers is decisive.' Try to unite for once. All the remedies have been unsuccessful until present, but this medicine recommended by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) will never fail. Unity is the source of all success, and the secret of unity lies in holding fast to the rope of Allah. Lailaha illallah Muhammadur Rasoolullah [There is no deity but Allah and Prophet Muhammad is His Messenger] is the rope which is mentioned in the above quoted verse. If you take to it, success would be under your feet.'
'The link of individual to the group is a blessing;
His skill reaches to its height with the nation.
'Till you are associated with the nation,
You would enjoy the partying of the victors.' [Persian couplet of Iqbal]
'The organization of the deceased nation has worsened;
Now tell me where the Muslims should go.' [Urdu couplet of Iqbal]
"[The Koran:] 'Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of the winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayat ([proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding' (Surah: Baqarah; Verse 164).
[The Koran:] 'And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy (rain). Till when they have carried a heavy-laden cloud, We drive it to a land that is dead, then We cause water (rain) to descend thereon. Then We produce every kind of fruit therewith. Similarly, We shall raise up the dead, so that you may remember or take heed.
"'The vegetation of the good land comes forth (easily) by the Permission of its Lord; and that which is bad, brings forth nothing but (a little) with difficulty. Thus do We explain variously the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) for a people who give thanks' (Surah: Al Araf; Verses 57-58).
"[The Koran:] 'He it is Who enables you to travel through land and sea, until when you are in the ships, and they sail with them with a favorable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein. Then they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone saying: 'If You (Allah) deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful.
"'But when He delivers them, behold! They rebel (disobey Allah) in the earth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebellion (disobedience to Allah) is only against your life, then (in the end) unto Us is your return, and We shall inform you of that which you used to do'" (Surah: Yunus; Verses 22-23)
"Iqbal [Exemplified The Koranic Understanding In Couplets]: 'Who Causes The Seeds To Germinate In The Darkness Of Soil? Who Raises Clouds From The Tides Of Rivers?'"
"[The Koran:] 'And thus We send the winds fertilizing (to fill heavily the clouds with water), then cause the water (rain) to descend from the sky, and We give it to you to drink, and it is not you who are the owners of this stores.' (Surah: Hajj, Verses 5, 21) [These lines are not at the mentioned position, but are at Surah: Hijr; Verse 22]
"[The Koran:] 'And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat (signs etc.). Then, we have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of the Day illuminating, that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may know the number of the years and the reckoning. And We have explained everything (in detail) with full explanation.' (Surah: Bani Israel; Verse 12)
"[The Koran:] 'And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating.' (Surah: Anbiya; Verse 33)
"Iqbal [exemplified the above understand from Koran in the couplets below]:
'Who causes the seeds to germinate in the darkness of soil?
Who raises clouds from the tides of rivers?
'Who brought the favorable wind pulling from the West?
Whose earth is this? And who's this illuminating sun belongs?
'Who filled in the ear of wheat with pearls?
Who has taught the seasons to habit of change?
'It is the God! This earth does not belong to you, it is not yours.
This does not belong to your ancestors; this is not yours and nor mine'."
 Roznama Nawa-i-Waqt (Pakistan), November 14, 2011.
 Roznama Jang (Pakistan), November 10, 2011.
 Roznama Nawa-i-Waqt (Pakistan), October 11, 2011.
 Roznama Nawa-i-Waqt (Pakistan), October 12, 2011.
|"The chief aim of all government is to preserve the freedom of the citizen. His control over his person, his property, his movements, his business, his desires should be restrained only so far as the public welfare imperatively demands. The world is in more danger of being governed too much than too little.
It is the teaching of all history that liberty can only be preserved in small areas. Local self-government is, therefore, indispensable to liberty. A centralized and distant bureaucracy is the worst of all tyranny.
Taxation can justly be levied for no purpose other than to provide revenue for the support of the government. To tax one person, class or section to provide revenue for the benefit of another is none the less robbery because done under the form of law and called taxation."
John W. Davis, Democratic Presidential Candidate, 1924. Davis was one of the greatest trial and appellate lawyers in US history. He also served as the US Ambassador to the UK.