Turkish UAV research, development and manufacture: an overview
TAI (Turkish Aerospace Industries)
1- TAI Sahit Tactical UAV 'IHA-X1' (1992)
Sahit was the first UAV prototype by TAI, only one was built before the project was abandoned.
2- TAI Keklik target drone (1995)
The Tracking Target Drone System, used in tracking training with radar/optical guided missiles
or barreled anti-aircraft, consists of "Keklik" aircraft, launcher, ground control system
and ground support equipment. The aircraft, which has a delta wing, composite structure and tractor type
powerplant, is launched by a manually operated bungee catapult and recovered by a remotely controlled
parachute on land or sea.
Length Overall: 1.36 m (4.46 ft)
Height Overall: 0.32 m (1.50 ft)
Wing Span: 1.61 m (5.28 ft)
Aspect Ratio: 3.4
Wing Area: 1.05 m2 (11.30 ft2)
Max. Launching Weight: 10 kg (22.05 lb)
Empty Weight: 7 kg (15.40 lb)
Launch: Bungee catapult launching
Recovery: Parachute recovery or skid landing
Visible Command Range: Max. 1,500 m
Stall Speed: 50 km/h (27 kts)
Max. Cruise Speed: 150 km/h (81 kts)
Power Plant: OS-MAX 91 Fx
Power Output: 2.8 hp
3- TAI Turna/Turna G target drone 'S-38' (1995)
Being a Design and Development program, TURNA Target Drone Systems program was initiated in 1995 to meet
the increasing training needs of the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF).
Indigenously designed and produced TURNAs, which entered the inventory of TAF in 2001, are being actively
used in training of defense units.
Max Speed: 180 kts.
Service Ceiling: 12000 ft.
Endurance: 90 mns.
4- TAI Marti UAV (2003)
Originally produced for pilot training, the Marti UAV has been in service since 2003.
TAIs "aerial-photographic camera and digital image analysis and retrieval" studies are carried out
with the partnership of TÜBITAK.
In 2004 Marti UAV successfully completed aerial image retrieval and shootings in Mersin,
replacing the older platforms which used to be achieved with balloons.
5- TAI Pelican UAV 'IHA-X2' (2003)
Pelikan, is a half scale model of the tactical UAV Baykus air platform.
It is produced as a training and bridge platform to the Baykus.
6- TAI Baykus tactical UAV (2003-2004)
TAI built a single Baykus UAV taking into account the needs for an intelligence unmanned aerial platform.
7- TAI Gözcü tactical UAV (2007)
Max.t/o weight: 85 kg.
Powerplant: Wankel/38 hp.
Mission speed: 90 kts.
Endurance: 120+ mns.
Max. altitude: 12000 ft.
Data link range: 50 km.
The composite platform, which can reacha maximum altitude of 12000 ft (ASL),
with 8 kg maximum payload capacity,is capable to carry both daylight and night camera and transfer
real-time video images up to 50 km.All the critical hardware and software of the system,
which has way pointnavigation and autonomous flight capabilities, have also been developed byTAI engineers.
8- TAI Öncü (2009)
Öncü is a 1:35 scale UAV compared to the TiHA project.
It is produced as a training and bridge platform to the "Anka".
9- TAI Anka-A 'TiHA-A' (2010)
The contract regarding the development of an indigenous Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system
for the reconnaissance requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces became effective on 24 December 2004.
Within the framework of the program, a total of three prototypes and ground systems will be designed,
developed, manufactured and tested by mid 2011 as part of the prototype development phase.
Subsequently in 2012, the serial production phase of ANKA-A will be launched and additional 10 systems
(meaning 30 ANKA-A's) will be built for Turkish Air Force. Trials of a TEI (Tusas Engine Industries) designed engine will start within one year
Fuselage Length: 33 ft (10 m)
Wingspan: 55.7 ft (17.3 m)
Height: 8.5 ft (2,7 m)
Wing area: 146.3 sq ft (13.6 m²)
Max takeoff weight: 3527 lb (1600 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Thielert Centurion 2.0 turbocharged Four-cylinder engine, 135 hp (100,6 kW)
Maximum speed: 135 mph (117 knots, 217 km/h)
Cruise speed: 86 mph (75 knots, 138 km/h)
Range: 124 mi (200 km)
Endurance: 24 hours with 200 kg useful payload
Service ceiling: 30,000 ft (9,144 m)
Avionics: ASELFLIR-300T, SAR/GMTI, ISAR Payload
First Flight 31.12.2010
10- TAI ANKA-B 'TIHA-B' (2012?)
Plans for the larger Tiha-B design were unveiled in July 2007 with this expected to see a demonstrator flying within the next few years.
The Anka-B is most likely to be able to carry Roketsan's Cirit or UMTAS missiles.
Main differences from the Anka-A:
Wingspan: 20 m
MTOW: 3500 kg
Payload: 500 kg
11- TAI Simsek high-speed target drone
The Turbojet powerd Target Drone "Simsek" look similar to the air launched Decoys TALD and ITALD,
they can become effective as illusoriness Target for greek SAM's. Also there is Potential for further Developments on Simsek
to Convert the Target Drone into a Cruise Missile like the israeli Delilah with "Man in the Loop" Guidence.
Such Cruise Missile can be effective against mobile or fixed soft Targets.
Baykar Makina / Baykar Technologies
12- Baykar Malazgirt mini VTOL UAV
Malazgirt Mini Unmanned Helicopter System is a complete autonomous flying robotic system solution.
With its automatic vertical landing/take off and anytime anywhere automatic hovering capability makes it a very attractive
choice especially in geographically harsh environmental conditions. Being operated on the field since a couple of years,
Malazgirt Mini Helicopter UAV System is the world's first operational mini unmanned helicopter system.
Rotor Span: 1.8 m.
Length: 1.2 m.
Range: 20 Km.
Operational Altitude: 3600 ft.
Maximum Altitude: 12000 ft.
Endurance (Gasoline Engine): 90 mns.
Endurance ( Electric Motor): 35 mns.
13- Baykar Bayraktar-A mini UAV
Initially Bayraktar A system was developed and the system went into serious modifications and in 2006 Bayraktar B has been developed.
System has specific features which enables it to be operated under harsh geographic and meteorological conditions.
Length: 1.2 m
Wing Span: 1.6 m
Weight: 3.5 kg
Power / Source: Electric / Battery
Take Off: Hand launch
Landing: Belly landing
Communication Range: 10 km
Endurance: 60 mns
Operational Altitude: 1000 ft
Maximum Altitude: 12000 ft
Cruise Speed: 70 km/hour
Payload 1: CCD Camera (Fixed Mount)
Payload 2: Thermal Camera (Fixed Mount)
Structure: Composite Material
Operating Crew: 2 Persons
14- Baykar Bayraktar-B 'Gözcü' mini UAV (2006)
New system is a complete smart robotic system solution for short range reconnaissance and surveillance applications.
Bayraktar B systems are operational on the field and have recorded more than 4000 flight hours.
Length: 1.2 m
Wing Span: 1.9 m
Weight: 4.5 kg
Power / Source: Electric / Battery
Take Off: Hand launch
Landing: Belly landing / Parachute landing
Communication Range: 15 km (With Auto Tracking Antenna System)
Endurance: 60 mns
Operational Altitude: 3000 ft
Maximum Altitude: 12000 ft
Cruise Speed: 55 km/hour
Payload 1: CCD Camera (Tilt Axis Movement)
Payload 2: Thermal Camera (Tilt Axis Movement)
Structure: Composite Material
Operating Crew: 2 Persons
15- Baykar Caldiran tactical UAV (2009)
Wing Span: 9m
Length: 5.5 m
Cruise Speed: 70 Knots
Endurance: 10-14 Hours
Communication Range: 150 Km
MTOW: 500 kg
.Two-axis stabilized 'Gimbal' unit
.IR camera module
.Laser designator / Range finder
.Thermal camera module
Automatic take-off and landing and autopilot capabilities.
16- Bayraktar Mini Tactical UAV
Thanks to dr okuz!
17- Vestel Ari mini UAV
Over the Hill Reconnaissance
ARI Micro UAV System is a compact and lightweight system designed for use in Military and Homeland Security missions during day or night.
The system presents the ultimate solution for C4ISR Over the Hill Reconnaissance, Surveillance, Target Acquisition missions.
Mission radius: 1 km
Cruise Speed: 32 kts
Max. Speed: 65 kts
Maximum Altitude: 10000 ft
Endurance: 30 mns
Motor Type: Brushless electric engine
Wing Span: 1 m
Take Off weight: 1 kg
Payload: Day & IR camera
18- Vestel Efe mini UAV
A mini UAV System for Day & Night Reconnaissance, Target Acquisition and many more missions.
Mission radius: 15 km (9,3 mi)
Endurance: 2,5 hours
Maximum speed: 160 km/h (86 knots)
Cruising speed: 80 km/h (43 knots)
Ceiling 4.500 m (15.000 ft)
pan: 2,4 m (7,9 ft )
Take-off weight: 5 kg (11 lbs)
Payloads: 0,75 kg (1,65 lbs)
Backpack weight: 14 kg (31 lbs)
Fully autonomous flight.
Real time video and data telemetry.
Day / Night (IR) camera with Gimbal.
Gimbal lifting for belly landing.
Fast deployment (10 mins. to launch).
19- Vestel Karayel tactical UAV
A tactical UAV with NATO standards
Wing span: 7.5 m
Length: 5 m
Total height: 1.17 m
Empiy weight: 125 kg
MTOW: 230 kg
Max. feul weight: 60 kg
Payload: EO, IR & LD (45 kg)
Endurance: 10-14 hrs
Operational ceiling: 18.000ft
Operation radius: 200 km
Realtime Link range: 150 km
Max. speed: 110 kts
Cruise speed: 100 kts
Loiter speed: 70-80 kts
Stall speed: 45 kts
An order was placed by Turkish Armed Forces in 2010 of 10 Units
20- Vestel light UAV
A hand launched mini observation UAV
Wing span: 2.6 m
Length: 1.65 m
Total height: 32.5 cm
Empiy weight: 4 kg
MTOW: 4.5 kg
Max. speed: 75 kts
Cruise speed: 30 kts
Loiter speed: 27 kts
Stall speed: 10 kts
Operational ceiling: 1000 ft
Operation radius: 12 km
Endurance: 90 mns
21- GlobiHA mini UAV
GLOBIHA is an independent Unmanned Air Vehicle, made of light composite material,
with high strength, that can fly with fueled and/or electrical engine. The UAV is made up by combining
the dismounted parts inside its special military packaging can be controlled at 200-1500 feet and conveys
real-time images by flying 1,5 hours within 15 kilometers of range. GLOBIHA is able to provide imaging at
any weather conditions, in real time, at day light and black/white low light with its imaging hardware.
At GLOBIHA Control System, flight plan and the detected video image reports can be stored electronically by
means of a light computer.
GLOBIHA, composed of light composite material, can be dismounted so that it can be easily carried;
and then re-mounted in 10 minutes. It is able to carry a load of 3.1 kg and can be thrown manually in approximately
10 minutes by 2 persons.
BASIC TECHNICAL PROPERTIES
Wing Span: 1510 mm
Length: 1400 mm
Net Weight: 3.1 kg
Data Transfer Dist.: 15 km
Endurance: 75 minutes
Flight speed: 65 km/h
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Drive: Electrical Engine
Battery Type: Rechargeable Li-Polymer Battery
METU (ODTÜ) Middle East Technical University
22- METU GüvenTürk mini UAV
Mini, Man Portable, Man Launchable System
MTOW: 4.5 kg
Empty Weight: 3 kg
Span: 2.20 m
Length: 1.35 m
Propulsion: Brushless Electric Motor
Motor Power: 900 watt
Motor Battery: Li-Poly Batteries
Motor Weight: 254 gr
Motor Battery Weight: 787 gr
Camera Weight: 16 gr
Camera Battery: 180 gr
Autopilot Battery: 64 gr
Launch: Hand Launched
Endurance: 30-90 min
Range: 10 km
Stall Speed: 9 m/s (17 knots)
Max. Speed: 23.5 m/s (45 knots)
Cruise Speed: 13.5 m/s (26 knots)
Cruise Altitude: 300 m
23- METU Tactical UAV
Conventional Take off and landing from runways
2-stoke cycle, 2 opposed cylinders, dual carburator IC engine delivering 21 HP
Electro-opical and infrared camera
Real time video down link to ground station
Wingspan: 4.3 m
Length: 3 m
Empty weigh: 90 kg
MTOW: 120 kg
Max. speed: 300 km/hr
Stall speed: 65 km/hr
Cruise speed: 145 km/hr
Max. endurance: 5 hrs
Range: 600 km
Flight ceiling: 3000 m
24- METU Jet UAV Project
Prof.Dr. Nafiz Alemdaroglu and a young team of 7 senior students have achieved the design and construction of a small
jet engine to be used on UAVs, as a result of a request issued by the TuAF officials.
The Engine has a diagram of 14 cm and ist length is 28 cm with ca. 25 kg thrust and 100-110 thousand RPM.
The team is also designing and constructing a UAV model that could operate with the mentioned engine;
Prof. Alemdarglu announced that the team has already built a preliminary model consisting of composite material,
and the jet engine will be mounted and tested on it in the near future.
25- METU Kugu mini 'Coanda Effect' UAV
Kugu UAV is a project from a group of METU (Middle East Technic University) students under the name of Gradient at Yeni Fikirler Yeni Isler
(New Ideas New Businesses) competition was awarded the special prize (25.000 TL) by the Undersecretariat for Defense Industries of Turkey or SSM
(Savunma Sanayii Müstesarligi) in 2009.
The Kugu UAV is to be developed for security, search and rescue and environment utilities ,
preparations are taking place for mass production of the vehicle.
26- METU Kelaynak
Anatolian Craft Team, which was founded by senior students and Prof. Dr. Nafiz Alemdaroglu (Prof-In-Chief) to represent METU Aerospace Engineering
Department in the Air Cargo Challenge Design/Build/Fly competition, has won 7th place and award in Covilha, Portugal, 27-31 August 2009.
In this competition, the goal is to carry maximum payload by considering regulations and limitations such as motor and lifting surface area.
26 teams has been applied to competition, however only 22 teams has managed to participate to the flight competition.
Team has succeeded to be 7th among 22 teams from all over Europe.
27- METU Tilt-duck UAV
An experimental concept.
ITU/UUBF (iTÜ) Istanbul University - Aviation & Space Sciences Faculty
28- ITU Tailsitter UAV concept
ITU CAL (Controls & Avionics Laboratory) Hybrid Propulsion System Design of a VTOL Tailsitter UAV:
Tailsitter UAVs with their combined vertical take off and landing (VTOL) and fixed-wing aircraft with full flight-speed regime capability provides a
distinct alternative to rotary-wing and ducted fan UAVs (OAVs). ITU-BYU Tailsitter concept aims to obtain the energy efficient regimes across the VTOL
and the cruising flight regimes. This paper describes our hybrid propulsion system design approach to attain this. The preliminary design and the analysis
indicate advantageous performance over other mini-class unmanned air vehicles.
29- ITU Tilt-Rotor VTOL UAV concept
Conceptual and preliminary design of an unmanned aerial vehicle capable of taking-off and landing vertically.
The vehicle can hover and fly at very low velocities like a helicopter and fly straight like a fixed wing aircraft; flying characteristic is hybrid
combining helicopter and conventional fixed-wing. It's taking off and landing like a helicopter.
Two tilting ducted fans are installed to wing tips which are driven by a main gasoline engine installed inside fuselage. Ducts have a positive effect
on propeller efficiency by minimizing tip loses. Also, when ducts are set to a specific angle of attack with respect to flight direction they generate
extra lift. A third fan (driven by an electrical engine) is also used at aft fuselage to balance aircraft. It is not used only when required.
Vehicle is manufactured from composite materials except mechanical systems. Here is brief information of aircraft
30- ITU Ucari
The UAV is constructed of carbon bars, balsa and carbon fibre.
31-36 ITU ATA series:
ITÜ has designed and built a series of UAVs of the ATA Series and a several other models.
35- ATA-8 Kaan
The ATA-8 Kaan is designed and developed by Istanbul Technical University and is the platform that achieved the 13th place in total in the
AIAA 2006-2007 Cessna/Raytheon D/B/F (Design/Build/Fly) competition in Tuscon, Arizona, in the category Flight & Ground Missions,
as well as the 15th place for the most economic platform, the 8th place for ground mission deployment and the 6th place in reconfiguration flexibilities.
The UAV has had reached the 5th place the previous year in the same competition.
ATA-8 KAAN specifications:
Length: 0.96 m
Width: 0.235 m
Height: 0.235 m
Wing profile: SD 7062
Take-off weight: 2.6 kg (empty), 5.2 kg (observation missions)
Stall speed: 9.2 m/s (empty), 13.7 m/s (observation missions)
Cruise speed: 16.5 m/s (empty), 24 m/s (observation missions)
Max. speed: 33 m/s (empty), 28 m/s (observation missions)
Take-off distance: 11 m (empty), 28 m (observation missions)
37- Aselsan Kasif Tethered Aerial Observation System
KASIF, Tethered Aerial Observation System is a low cost, ground fixed airship equipped with sophisticated payload for real-time reconnaissance,
surveillance and tracking applications.
Kasif mosaics frames of terrain captured from high altitude and constructs a panoramic image for whole picture of area under investigation.
The system segments, recognizes, identifies and tracks the targets on this panoramic image which are either determined automatically or by the
Observation, Reconnaissance and Intelligence
Coast and Border Security
Forest Fire Detection
Security of Critical Infrastructure
Road Traffic Information Gathering
38- TOBB ETU Akbaba Feul-Cell UAV
The first Turkish Fuell-Cell Powered UAV, made its first flight on May 30th 2010.
Endurance: 3 hrs
Autonomous flight planned to be installed in 2011.
39- Kuzgun_1 Unmanned Airship
KUZGUN_1 is the first product fully designed and developed by KUZGUN LTD. the research, development and production processes of the project is
sponsored by KOSGEB (Small and Medium Industry Development Organization) and TUBITAK-TEYDEB (Technology and Innovation Funding Programs Directorate)
which are both Turkish governmental organizations.
As a small unmanned airship, KUZGUN_1 is ready to upgrade platform to fulfill your operational needs for the following objectives :
·Integration to City Security Management Systems
·Unlicenced Construction Survey
·Zero Carbon Emission
·Two Brushless Electric Motors
·Differential Vector Thrust Steering
·Integrated Video Downlink
·Futuba 6CH Radio Control System
·Lithium Polymer Battery Technology
·Low Operational Cost
40- Kuzgun_A1 Aerostat
KUZGUN_A1 AEROSTAT is a tethered lighter-than-air object that can stay stationary in the air and carry surveillance cameras.
It can also be used as radio relay.
KUZGUN_AEROSTATS are ready to upgrade platform to fulfill your operational needs for the following objectives :
·Lifting Airborne Radar Equipment
·Lifting Meteorological Equipment
·Increasing line of sight for your purposes
·Lifting Video Equipment and Digital Cameras
Bedir has a number of ongoing projects concerning UAVs
41- MICRO AIR VEHICLE - (continuing)
42- ORGANIC AIR VEHICLE - (in design phase)
43- UNMANNED COMBAT AIR VEHICLE - (in design phase)
Special thanks to Cabatli_53, Tuncay Deniz, Günay Kayhaoglu, Tango, Nutuk and dr_okuz.