<< Previous Topic | Next Topic >>Return to Forum  

The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 10 2017 at 6:41 AM
Pentcho Valev 

 
Nature 2002: "Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] Denis J. Evans and colleagues [...] measured water molecules' influence the motion of tiny latex beads held between lasers. They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

A kick lasting for up to two seconds and involving "thousands of atoms and molecules" suggests the presence of a factor somehow organizing water and prompting it to behave in this way. This factor is the electrical field created by the laser beam:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] To test the idea, the researchers put about 100 latex beads - each 6.3 µm across - into a water-filled cell, which was placed on the stage of a microscope. The researchers focused a laser onto one of the beads, which induced a dipole moment in the bead and drew it towards the most intense region of the electric field in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2002/jul/16/small-systems-defy-second-law

"Optical tweezers are capable of manipulating nanometer and micron-sized dielectric particles by exerting extremely small forces via a highly focused laser beam. The beam is typically focused by sending it through a microscope objective. The narrowest point of the focused beam, known as the beam waist, contains a very strong electric field gradient. Dielectric particles are attracted along the gradient to the region of strongest electric field, which is the center of the beam." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_tweezers

In the presence of an electric field water can breathtakingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. Here is perpetual (limited only by the deterioration of the system) motion of water in a strong electric field, obviously able to produce work - e.g. by rotating a waterwheel:

"The Formation of the Floating Water Bridge including electric breakdowns" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17UD1goTFhQ

"The water movement is bidirectional, i.e., it simultaneously flows in both directions." https://www.wetsus.nl/home/wetsus-news/more-than-just-a-party-trick-the-floating-water-bridge-holds-insight-into-nature-and-human-innovation/1

The work will be done at the expense of what energy? The first hypothesis that comes to mind is:

At the expense of electric energy. The system is, essentially, an electric motor.

However, close inspection would suggest that the hypothesis is untenable. Scientists use triply distilled water to reduce the conductivity and the electric current passing through the system to minimum. If, for some reason, the current is increased, the motion stops - the system cannot be an electric motor.

If the system is not an electric motor, then it is ... a perpetual-motion machine of the second kind! Here arguments describing perpetual-motion machines as impossible, idiotic, etc. are irrelevant - the following conditional is valid:

IF THE SYSTEM IS NOT AN ELECTRIC MOTOR, then it is a perpetual-motion machine of the second kind.

In other words, if the work is not done at the expense of electric energy, then it is done at the expense of ambient heat, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. No third source of energy is conceivable.

In the electric field between the plates of a capacitor, the same perpetual motion of water can be seen:

" Liquid Dielectric Capacitor" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6KAH1JpdPg

In the capacitor system the rising water can repeatedly do work, e.g. by lifting floating weights. The crucial question is:

The work (lifting floating weights) will be done at the expense of what energy?

Obviously "electric energy" is not the correct answer - the capacitor is not an electric motor. Then the only possible answer remains "ambient heat". The system is a heat engine violating the second law of thermodynamics!

Pentcho Valev

 
 Respond to this message   
AuthorReply
Pentcho Valev

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 10 2017, 2:49 PM 

In an electric field, water develops a specific pressure that pushes in all directions and can result in an eternal (limited only by the deterioration of the system) motion, on condition that the system provides suitable channels for water to move through. If, in the simplest case, two opposite charges immersed in water are close enough to attract each other, the specific pressure that develops between them counteracts the force of attraction and the latter apparently decreases:

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, pp.115-116: "Thus the decrease in force that is experienced between two charges when they are immersed in a dielectric liquid can be understood only by considering the effect of the PRESSURE OF THE LIQUID ON THE CHARGES themselves." http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Electricity-Magnetism-Second-Physics/dp/0486439240?tag=viglink21401-20

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease... [...] This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

Tai Chow, Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A Modern Perspective, p. 267: "The strictly electric forces between charges on the conductors are not influenced by the presence of the dielectric medium. The medium is polarized, however, and the interaction of the electric field with the polarized medium results in an INCREASED FLUID PRESSURE ON THE CONDUCTORS that reduces the net forces acting on them." http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-To-Electromagnetic-Theory-Perspective/dp/0763738271

The specific pressure that develops in water placed in an electric field is NON-CONSERVATIVE. This means that, if suitably harnessed, the pressure will do work AT THE EXPENSE OF AMBIENT HEAT (in violation of the second law of thermodynamics). Here is a simple example:

http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/PhysicsProblems/E&M/2-Dielectrics/capacitors_with_dielectrics.html
"A plane capacitor with rectangular plates is fixed in a vertical position. [...] The capacitor is charged and disconnected from the battery. [...] The lower part of the capacitor is now brought into contact with a dielectric liquid:

[linked image]

When the plates contact the liquid's surface, a force in the upward direction is exerted on the dielectric liquid. The total charge on each plate remains constant and there is no energy transferred to the system from outside." [END OF QUOTATION]

There IS energy transferred to the system from outside. The rising water can do work, e.g. by lifting a floating weight, and this work can only be done at the expense of AMBIENT HEAT.

What is the molecular mechanism behind the effect? Here is a schematic presentation of water dipoles in the electrical field:

[linked image]

If it were not for the indicated (with an arrow) dipole, other dipoles in the picture are perfectly polarized as if there were no thermal motion. Of course, this is an oversimplification – thermal motion is a factor which constantly disturbs the polarization order. The crucial point is that, as can be inferred from the picture, any thermal disturbance contributes to the creation of a pressure between the plates. Consider the indicated dipole. It has just received a strong thermal stroke and undergone rotation. As a result, it pushes adjacent dipoles electrostatically, towards the plates. Macroscopically, the sum of all such disturbances is expressed as a pressure exerted on the plates. One can also say, somewhat figuratively, that the indicated dipole has absorbed heat and now, by pushing adjacent dipoles, is trying to convert it into work.

Pentcho Valev

 
 
Anonymous

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 10 2017, 9:19 PM 

--In the presence of an electric field water can breathtakingly violate the second law of thermodynamics.

What is breathtaking is your stupidity. Also the persistence with which you embarrass yourself. You claim to be a biochemist, which explains your total ignorance in theoretical physics, but the moronic nonsense that you periodically divulge in the area of thermodynamics implies that you are lying about your biochemistry degree. In fact it would be truly stunning if you finished high school. It will speak really bad for the school.

 
 
Anonym

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 10 2017, 9:52 PM 

the capacitor is electrical engine. it consumes electricity on every cycle. idiot.

 
 
Anonym

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 10 2017, 9:57 PM 

wacko

 
 
Anonymous

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 11 2017, 4:17 AM 


 
 
Pentcho Valev

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 14 2017, 3:54 AM 

Nature 2002: "Second law broken. Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

No thermal fluctuation can produce a kick lasting for so long (up to two seconds). Only a local FLOW can push the bead in this way, and the flow, generated by a local electric field, is essentially identical to the flows in this system:

"The Formation of the Floating Water Bridge..." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17UD1goTFhQ

In the electric field between the plates of a capacitor, the same flows can be seen:

"Liquid Dielectric Capacitor" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6KAH1JpdPg

Pentcho Valev

 
 
Anonym

Re: The 2002 Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

November 14 2017, 11:16 PM 

wacko

 
 
 
  Respond to this message   
  << Previous Topic | Next Topic >>Return to Forum  
 Copyright © 1999-2017 Network54. All rights reserved.   Terms of Use   Privacy Statement