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2cd part of Chinese armaments

January 17 2010 at 6:16 AM

Response to Response to need for a comprehensive list of Chinese (and Siamese) artillery/other weapons

in both .30 caliber and in 7.92mm. Specifically the Curtiss-Wright aircraft company sold China 105 MG-40 aircraft guns in .30 caliber between February and March 1934, with one additional gun delivered in May 1935. Possible, but unconfirmed, additional Curtiss deliveries of MG-40s to China were as follows: one in July 1930; two in May 1932 plus eight additional in November of the same year; 24 guns in March 1933; one in July of 1933; 44 guns in August 1934; three more in September 1934; 30 in 1935; 188 in 1936; and 12 in 1937. Curtiss is known to have delivered 10 guns in 7.92mm in 1938, with 7 more in 1939 and 424 in 1940, all in 7.92mm. Boeing delivered 24 .30 caliber guns between July 1934 and May 1935, and Douglas delivered 75 .30 caliber MG-40s between April 1934 and June 1934. North American Aviation delivered 77 .30 caliber MG-40s in 1938, and Ryan Aeronautical delivered two in 7.92mm in 1940.

7.62 x 63mm (.30-06) or 7.92 x 57mm Mauser?: Colt-Browning MG-38T tank machinegun. This was likely the machinegun which was used on Chinas Marmon-Herrington CTLS series light tanks.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: FN Browning Modèle 1932 aircraft machine gun. Records at FN state that China purchased 410 Mle. 1932 aircraft guns between 1935 and 1936, and then acquired another 201 guns between 1937 and 1938. Another report states that between July 1934 and June 1936, China took delivery of a total of 1285 FN Mle. 1932 aircraft machineguns, which may mean that between 1934 and the middle of 1935 alone China took delivery of 875 FN Mle. 1932 aircraft guns.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: MG-13 light machine gun. These were acquired along with the small number of PzKpfw I light tanks and the Sd. Kfz. 221 and Sd. Kfz. 222 armored cars exported to China by Germany in 1936; the total delivered probably did not exceed 100 guns.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Japanese Army Type 98 (Model of 1938), and Navy Type 1 (Model of 1941) aircraft machine guns. These were Japanese copies of the German MG-15 (Solothurn Model T-6-220) flexible aircraft machine gun; some were likely captured by the Chinese and put to use against their former owners.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Type 24 (Model of 1935) Maxim heavy machine gun. In 1935 the German military advisory commission, which worked in China from 1932 to 1938, set up a Maxim gun production line at Arsenal 21with the help of some former DWM technicians. The Type 24 Maxim gun was largely based on the earlier DWM Maxim M-1909 commercial gun. Some 36,032 of these machineguns were built between 1935 and the summer of 1937, when Japan invaded the rest of China. The weapon would become one of the most common automatic weapons in Chinese service prior to 1950.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: ZB (Brno) Model 53 (vz. 37) heavy machine gun. China acquired an undetermined quantity of these heavy machineguns from Brno between ca. 1936 and 1939.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Colt-Browning MG-38 heavy machine gun. China first acquired one of these weapons in March 1935 via the Hong Kong Sporting Arms store, with an additional six acquired directly from Colt in 1938, and another 200 guns from Colt in 1939. The MG-38 was a commercial Colt manufactured water-cooled machinegun essentially identical to the U.S. .30 caliber Browning M-1917 machine gun. Colt made several variations of these machineguns during the inter-war period including the M-1919, M-1924, M-1928 and the MG-38 (if equipped with a pistol grip as on the M-1917) and MG-38B (equipped with spade grips). They all differed from the M-1917 essentially in having several minor internal modifications. The MG-38 models had improved bolt handles.

6.5 x 50mmSR Arisaka: Various Japanese 6.5mm machine guns including: M-1897 Hotchkiss heavy machinegun; Type 3 (Model of 1914) heavy machinegun; Type 11 (Model of 1922) light machine gun; Type 91 (Model of 1931) armor machine gun; Type 96 (Model of 1936) light machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese during the period 1931 to 1945.

7.7 x 58mmSR Type 92: various Japanese 7.7mm machine guns including: Type 92 (Model 1932) heavy machine gun (a modified Type 3 HMG, which could also chamber the later rimless Type 99 Arisaka cartridge); Type 97 (Model of 1937) armor machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese, or acquired from stocks of abandoned Japanese weapons after Japans surrender in September 1945.

7.7 x 58mm Type 99 Arisaka: various Japanese machine guns including: Type 99 (Model of 1939) light machine gun; Type 1 (Model of 1941) heavy machine gun. These weapons were captured from the Japanese; however the Type 1, a substantially modified Type 92, was likely very uncommon in comparison with the more numerous Type 92 HMG.

7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1917A1 heavy machine gun. The United States supplied 3,363 M-1917A1s to China between late 1941 or early 1942 and 1949.

7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1919A4 medium machinegun, and M-1919A6 light machine gun. The United States supplied 1218 M-1919A4 and M-1919A6 Browning machineguns to China after 1942.

7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-1919A5 armor machine gun. The United States supplied 1,640 M-1919A5s from 1943, ostensibly to equip Chinas M-3A3 light tanks; however since China never had more than a few dozen M-3A3 light tanks it is likely that many of these weapons were employed as ground guns.

7.62 x 63mm (.30-06): U.S. Browning M-2 aircraft machine gun. The United States supplied China 5,098 M-2 aircraft guns after 1941.

7.7 x 56mm R (.303 British): Bren Mk. IM, Mk. II/I, and Mk. II light machineguns. The Chinese army in India and Burma seems to have received a substantial quantity of standard British Commonwealth .303 Bren guns, primarily of the Mk. IM, and the Mk. II/I (a transitional model, using parts from both the Mk. I and Mk. II Bren guns); but, by far the most commonly used Bren by Chinese forces was the Mk. II. The weapons seem to have been made primarily by the John Inglis Company in Toronto, Canada.

7.92 x 57mm Mauser: Bren Mk. II light machine gun. The John Inglis company in Canada made 39,300 of these guns for the Nationalists in the standard Chinese 7.92mm caliber between January 1944 and the middle of 1945. These weapons would supplement the earlier .303 Brens supplied to the Chinese forces in the India/Burma theater. It would subsequently become the standard Chinese squad automatic weapon on the northern Burma front.

.577/.450 (.45 M.H.) Martini Henry: Maxim-Nordenfeldt Model 1887 Maxim World Standard machine gun. China acquired ten of these guns along with the above cited .303 Maxims in 1895 from H.M. Schultz in Shanghai.

12.7 x 81mm (.50 caliber Vickers): Vickers water-cooled heavy machine gun. These were possibly identical to the British Mk. III Naval Pattern introduced into Royal Navy service in July 1932. China acquired 19 of these weapons in 1931 and 1932 for use by its Maritime Customs service.

12.7 x 99mm (.50 caliber): U.S. Browning M-2 HB heavy machine gun. The United States provided China with 501 M-2 HBs from late 1941 or early 1942. China also received a quantity of water-cooled .50 caliber M-2 heavy machineguns for anti-aircraft use.

12.7 x 99mm (.50 caliber): U.S. Browning M-2 fixed and flexible aircraft machine gun. The United States provided China with 460 .50 cal M-2 aircraft guns from 1941.

12.7 x 120mmSR (.50 caliber Vickers): Vickers Class D High Velocity heavy machine gun. China acquired twenty of these guns as anti-aircraft weapons in 1932 via Jardine-Matheson in Hong Kong. Siam acquired 24 of the guns as well, and Japan acquired the balance of 56.

13.2 x 99mm: M-1930 Hotchkiss heavy machinegun. An undisclosed quantity of this weapon has been reported to have been purchased by China from France during the 1930s. There are photos of this weapon in use in China dating from 1937 or 1938. It is also possible that some of the pictured weapons were actually Japanese Type 93 (Model of 1933) copies of the same weapon. Japanese Type 93s were captured from the Japanese by the Chinese in relatively small quantities. The 13.2mm M-1930 HMG was used to arm some of Chinas Renault AMR ZB light tanks.


50mm: Japanese Type 10 (Model of 1921) grenade launcher. This light mortar was a standard Japanese infantry support weapon, and was captured in some quantity by the Chinese.

50mm: Japanese Type 89 (Model of 1929) grenade launcher. This was essentially a modified Type 10 grenade launcher, which was characterized by a moveable firing pin and a rifled barrel, which provided a substantial increase in range over its predecessor. This weapon was captured in some quantity from the Japanese.

60mm: Stokes-Brandt M-1935 mortar. China seems to have purchased a quantity of these weapons from France ca. 1938-1940. It was copied in China as the Type 31 (Model of 1942), and was characterized by its longer barrel than the French original.

60mm: U.S. M-2 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied large numbers of these mortars from 1942.

70mm: Japanese Type 11 (Model of 1922) mortar. This mortar was the standard Japanese infantry support mortar prior to the adoption of the 81mm Stokes pattern during the late 1920s, and was captured in some quantity by the Chinese.

81mm: M-1917 (3 inch Mk. I [which see below]) Stokes mortar. These weapons were provided to China during the 1920s, likely by Great Britain or France.

81mm: Stokes-Brandt Mle.1927/31 mortar. This weapon was acquired from the early 1930s from France. The Japanese direct copy of this weapon, the Type 3 (Model of 1928), was captured in some quantity from the Japanese. There is an indication in one source that the Chinese designated the Stokes-Brandt M-1927/1931 the Type 20 (model of 1931).

81mm: 8cm sGrW-34 mortar. It has been reported in a Chinese source that the Germans supplied China with an undisclosed quantity of these mortars ca. 1936-1938. The sGrW-34 was a German development of the Stokes-Brandt Mle.1927/31 81mm mortar. These weapons were distinguished by the heavy machined reinforce at the muzzle (the original French weapon had an un-reinforced muzzle), their distinctive forged aluminum elevation and cross leveling knobs instead of the foldable cranks of the original, the form of the barrel yoke on the mount, and the form of the base-plate.

81mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This was the standard Japanese infantry mortar from the late 1930s until 1945, and large quantities were captured by the Chinese.

81mm: Japanese Type 99 (Model of 1939) mortar. This was a lighter and shorter version of the earlier Type 97, with a barrel about half as long as that of the earlier weapon and a much lighter and shorter bipod. This weapon supplemented the Type 97 in Japanese service, and large quantities were captured and used by the Chinese.

81mm: U.S. M-1 81mm mortar. This was the U.S. version of the Stokes-Brandt M-1927/31 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program provided a substantial quantity of these weapons to the Chinese from late 1941.

81mm: British 3 inch Mk. I, Mk. IA, Mk. II, Mk. IV, and Mk.V mortars on Mounts Mk. III and Mk. V. These weapons differed in the design of their tubes, particularly in the design of their breech pieces and strikers, with the Mk. V model being capable of firing captured Axis bombs. The Mk. II and Mk. V weapons were the most common variants in Burma (the Mk. V was a lightened version allegedly designed for use by British troops in the Far East). According to one Chinese source Britain supplied an unknown quantity of Canadian made 3 inch mortars to the Chinese forces in the India/Burma Theater.

82mm: Soviet PM-37 (M-1937) mortar. The Soviet Union supplied the Nationalists with an unknown quantity of PM-37 mortars ca. 1938-1939 as part of their aid program.

90mm: Japanese Type 94 (Model of 1934) mortar. This was the standard heavy mortar of the Japanese artillery, and was usually used in a static role or as a barrage weapon. It was characterized by heavy twin recoil cylinders in a u-shaped frame and its reinforced breech piece. It is unlikely that many of these weapons were captured and then employed against their former owners, as they were extremely heavy and unwieldy.

90mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This replaced the earlier Type 94 in service, and was built on the Stokes pattern; however, it retained the heavier base plate and the bipod of the earlier weapon. Captured examples of this mortar were more commonly employed by Chinese troops as it was easier to break down and transport than its predecessor.

107mm: U.S. 4.2 inch M-2 mortar. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied China a quantity of these mortars after 1942.

150mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) mortar. This extremely large Stokes pattern mortar was not employed by the Japanese in large quantities, therefore its capture and subsequent use by the Chinese is doubtful. However, the Chinese manufactured a very rough copy of this weapon, capable of firing captured Japanese 150mm mortar ammunition. The barrel was characterized by having extremely thick walls, as the metallurgy was not up to contemporary standards.

152mm: 6 inch Newton mortar. A number of these weapons, possibly surplus British weapons, seem to have been used in China during the 1920s by some of the warlord armies. They seem to have been mounted on locally produced local carriages. They would have been among the heaviest artillery weapons in China at that time.

Anti-Tank Weapons:

20 x 125mm: Japanese Type 97 (Model of 1937) anti-tank rifle. This weapon, which used a system largely based on that of the Hispano-Suiza HS-404 20mm cannon, was a large and extremely heavy (over 105 pounds with a shield) semi-automatic cannon. Some of these weapons were likely captured by the Chinese and turned against their former owners.

37mm: 3.7cm PaK 35/36 anti-tank gun. 124 of these weapons are reported to have been supplied to China during the time of the German advisory group between 1936 and 1938. Originally designed in 1925 by Rheinmetall, the weapon entered service with the Reichswehr in 1928 as the 3.7cm TaK, and was characterized by its wooden artillery wheels. Weapons manufactured from 1934 received disk wheels with pneumatics, and the gun received its final designation of PaK 35/36 in 1936. This weapon was widely exported during the inter-war period, notably to Czechoslovakia (for tests?), Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy (Cannone contracarro da 37/45)- made under license at Breda, Japan (Type 97 [Model of 1937]), Mexico (Breda guns from Italy), the Netherlands, the Soviet Union (Model 1930), Spain, and Turkey (with an L/50 barrel). The Soviets are reported to have provided China with a small quantity of their own M-1930 37mm AT gun during the 1930s.

37mm: U.S. M-3A1 anti-tank gun. The U.S Lend Lease program supplied China some of these weapons after 1942.

37mm: Japanese Type 94 (Model of 1934) infantry/anti-tank gun. Examples of this weapon were captured from the Japanese, and were used frequently for direct support of infantry as well as an anti-tank gun.

45mm: Soviet M-1932 anti-tank gun. These anti-tank guns were based upon the design of the German Rheinmetall PaK 35/36, but were chambered for the larger and more powerful Soviet 45mm round. The Soviets provided China an unknown quantity of these weapons during the 1930s.

47mm: 4.7cm Böhler M-1935 anti-tank gun. China received a few of these weapons from Böhlers Italian licensee, Breda, during the late 1930s. The Böhler gun was used by several countries, including Austria (K.n. 36), Finland (12 guns from Breda), Italy (Cannone da 47/32 Modello 1935), Lithuania, the Netherlands (Kanon van 4.7), Romania (165 guns from Breda between 1939 and 1942), the Soviet Union (ex-Lithuanian guns?), Spain (Breda guns), Switzerland, and Yugoslavia (44 ex-Spanish pieces).

47mm: Japanese Type 1 (Model of 1941) anti-tank gun. Small numbers of these weapons were captured from the Japanese late in the war.

Artillery: Note: An asterisk next to the entry means that Chinese use of the artillery piece in question is unconfirmed.

37mm: Skoda 3.7cm M.15 infantry gun. Some sources have reported that China was supplied a quantity of these infantry guns, possibly after the First World War.

37mm: Japanese Type 11 (Model of 1922) infantry gun. This light artillery piece was used by the Japanese for close support, and its design was largely based on that of the French Puteaux Mle. 1916 T.R.P. infantry gun. Any captured by the Chinese were likely re-employed by them against their former owners.

47mm: Japanese Naval Landing Gun. This weapon was based on the Hotchkiss-Nordenfeldt system of quick-firing naval guns used by numerous countries navies around the world (other calibers were 37mm, 42mm, 57mm and 65mm; the Krupp-Gruson Werke in Germany produced similar guns in 37mm, 53mm and 57mm). This gun was used by Japanese naval infantry on a field carriage for close support, and some likely fell into Chinese hands during the Sino-Japanese War.

*70mm: Krupp 7cm GebK-98 L/14. Krupp sold an undisclosed quantity of this commercial type of mountain gun to China ca. 1900. This was a non-recoil system rigid carriage gun similar to models sold during the 1890s to Argentina (M-1896 and M-1898 in 75mm), Bolivia (M-1898 in 75mm), Chile (M-1891 in 75mm), Colombia (70mm), El Salvador (M-1895 in 75mm), Paraguay (75mm), Peru (M-1894 in 75mm), Spain (M-1896 in 75mm), and Venezuela (L/13 in 80mm).

37mm/70mm: Skoda M-1930 mountain gun (Model AB-1/BA-1). Details of this weapon are extremely limited, but it is possible that it was very similar to the larger 75mm/90mm M-1928 (Model CD/DC) mountain gun exported to Afghanistan, Colombia, Greece and Yugoslavia. The ordnance would have been interchangeable between 37mm and 70mm barrels just as on the heavier 75mm/90mm weapon. These guns were also apparently exported to Bulgaria (which used only the 37mm version) and Latvia (which used only the 70mm version). China is said to have used only the 70mm version of this gun.

37mm/75mm: Bofors M-1933 dual purpose gun. These unusual weapons had a 37mm barrel for anti-tank work and a 75mm barrel for use as an infantry gun mounted in an over-under fashion with the 37mm gun on top. They were used as direct infantry support weapons. China took delivery of 13 of these guns in 1933-1934. See Siam below.

65mm: Canon de 65 M mle. 1906 mountain gun. This unusual gun was designed by Deport, and employed differential recoil. Some of these guns seem to have been provided to China during the 1920s by France. Some were also likely employed by Long Yun, the warlord in Yunnan Province who was supported by the French in Indo-China. The gun was also exported to Greece, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia; some were also apparently employed by Albania. An example of one of these small mountain guns is in the collection of the Beijing Military Museum.

70mm: Japanese Type 92 (Model of 1932) battalion gun. This was probably the most common of Japanese artillery pieces, and was produced by the thousands. Many were captured by the Chinese and turned against their erstwhile owners. They were handy little guns which were light and easy to maneuver.

72.5mm: Skoda M-1907 mountain gun. China purchased an unknown quantity of these guns prior to the First World War. It would later be produced by Skoda for the Austro-Hungarian army as the 7cm GebK. M. 9, of which six batteries would be delivered.

75mm: Krupp commercial field gun. This weapon was a new recoil carriage field gun design sold by Krupp to several countries including: Argentina (M-1909), Belgium (Canon de 75 mle. TR), Brazil (M-1904 L/28), Denmark (7.5cm M-1902 L/30), Guatemala, Italy (Cannone da 75/27 modello 1906 [which see below]), Japan (Type 38 [Model of 1905], and Type 38 Improved), the Netherlands (7 veld M. 02/04), Romania (M-1903), Sweden (7.5cm M/02), Switzerland (7.5cm FK. 03), Turkey (7.5cm/30 M. 03), and Uruguay (M-1909) in the years before the First World War. China seems to have acquired several batteries of these guns prior to the 1911 Revolution. Chinese guns seem to have been designated the M-1903/06 field gun.

*75mm: Italian Cannone da 75/27 modello 1906. China is reported to have acquired an unknown quantity of these field guns after the First World War to supplement their standard Krupp M-1903/06 field guns. The Cannone da 75/27 was an Italian licensed copy of the original Krupp commercial design built by Ansaldo and Armstrong Pozzuoli. The origin of the Chinese guns is unclear, but some of them may have been acquired as surplus from Poland as well as from Italy directly.

75mm: Japanese Type 38 and Type 38 Improved (Model of 1905) field guns. This was a Japanese licensed production version of the Krupp commercial field gun listed above, and was the most important Japanese field gun until the appearance of the Schneider designed Type 90 (Model of 1930) field gun during the early 1930s. Many of these weapons were captured during the Sino-Japanese War and employed against their former owners or were subsequently acquired from abandoned stocks after 1945 and used during the Civil War. Smaller quantities of Japanese 75mm Type 41 (Model of 1908) cavalry field guns, Schneider designed 75mm Type 90 (Model of 1930) and 75mm Type 95 (Model of 1935) field guns were also captured.

75mm: Krupp M-1904 mountain gun. Chinas use of this weapon is confirmed by the existence of a photo of a captured Nationalist battery of these guns in use by Manchukuoan collaborationist troops during the early 1930s. This was a commercial type Krupp mountain gun similar to guns sold to several other countries including Bulgaria (7.5cm M. 05), Chile (M-1913), Guatemala, Japan (Type 41 [Model of 1908]), Mexico, Paraguay (M-1907), Turkey (7.5cm/14 M. 04), and Switzerland (7.5cm GebK. 06). Captured Japanese Type 41 mountain guns (later designated a regimental gun by the Japanese) were employed in large quantities by the Chinese, and some served into the early 1970s with the PLA.

*75mm: Schneider M-1907 (Model MD) mountain gun. It has been reported that China purchased some Schneider mountain guns before the 1911 revolution, the most likely candidate being its Model of 1907/M-1908 Model MD commercial mountain gun which was also built for Bulgaria and Turkey in 75mm, and in 70mm for Italy (M-1908), Portugal, Serbia and Spain (M-1908).

75mm: Skoda M-1911 field gun. China purchased 48 of these field guns ca. 1912 from Skoda, but 24 of the order were seized by the Austro-Hungarian army in 1914 for use during the First World War. Some of the surviving guns would later serve with the Czech army from 1919.

75mm: Skoda M-1913 mountain gun. This was the precursor to the more common and better-known Skoda M. 15 7.5cm mountain gun [which see below], and was characterized by its lighter barrel construction as opposed to that of its successor. The weapon was sold to China (as the M-1914 China Mountain Gun, and of whose order Austria-Hungary seized 52 guns in 1914), Costa Rica, Ecuador (which acquired a few batteries in 1913-1914), and Uruguay.

75mm: Rheinmetall (formerly Ehrhardt) M-1914 mountain gun (7.5cm GebK. L/16 China M-1914). China ordered this weapon just before the First World War, and reports state that the German government seized all 18 of the guns for its own use, later passing these and some newly built weapons on to the Austro-Hungarian army and Ottoman Turkey. Nine batteries of a very similar weapon had been sold to Norway as the 7.5cm Mountain Howitzer M. 11, and photographic evidence indicates that Siam may have purchased a few.

*75mm: Skoda 7.5cm M.15 mountain gun. This weapon has been reported by one source to have been used by China. It seems likely that the weapons were acquired from Skoda in Czechoslovakia after 1920. Another possible source for these guns was Italy, where the weapon was known as the Obice da 75/13 and was the preferred mountain gun in Italian service after 1919 as the Italians had captured some 1,200 examples during the First World War, so any surplus guns may have been sold off. The 7.5cm M.15 mountain gun was very widely used, serving with the armies of Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany (as the GebK-15 after 1938), Hungary, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslavia.

75mm: Canon de campagne de 75 mle. 1897 field gun (Puteaux). This was the ubiquitous French 75 field gun; it has been reported that China took delivery of an undisclosed quantity of these field guns after the First World War, probably from France via French Indo-China. The weapon was probably also employed by the warlord Long Yuns army in Yunnan Province. The Mle. 1897 was used by over twenty countries, and some served on into the 1970s with former French African colonies. Countries to which France supplied these field guns included not only China, but also to Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon (post colonial period), Cambodia (post colonial period), Czechoslovakia (lekh kanon vz. 1897), Cuba (probably of U.S. origin), the Dominican Republic, Estonia, Greece, Italy (cannone da 75/34 modello 1897 P.B. [di preda bellica ie. captured] both supplied by France to Italy during the First World War, and captured or ceded stocks after the Fall of France in 1940), Laos (post colonial period), Lebanon (post colonial period), Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco (post colonial period), Poland (armata polowa wz. 1897/17), Portugal, Romania, Syria (post colonial period), Spain (Civil War use by the Republicans), the United States and Uruguay. An example of this weapon can be seen in the collection of the Beijing Military Museum.

*75mm: Schneider M-1912 (Model PD-13) field gun. This was the last variant of a widely exported Schneider commercial field gun design (Models LD and PD), variants of which were acquired as well by Bolivia (Model PD), Bulgaria (M-1905), Greece (M-1906), Peru (M-1906), Portugal (M-1903), Spain (M-1906), Serbia (M-1906 [Model PDM]), and Uruguay (M-1909 [Model PD-2]). The M-1912 version (Model PD-13) was exported to Belgium and Serbia, and was adopted as a cavalry gun by France in 1912, which they designated the canon de campagne de 75 Mle. 1912S. It is not clear how many of these field guns China acquired, nor whether or not the guns were delivered before 1914 or post-war as surplus.

*75mm: Schneider Mle. 1919 (Model MPC-2) mountain gun. Schneider originally developed this gun commercially (to which Schneider gave the commercial designations MPC- Maroc or MPC-2) ca. 1910 for export, since prior to the First World War the French army preferred to develop her own artillery pieces through Frances state run arsenals at Bourges, Puteaux and Tarbes instead of buying an off the shelf item. The French army eventually adopted the weapon in 1919 as the Canon de 75 de montagne Mle. 1919, and later in 1928 adopted an improved version designated Canon de 75 de montagne Mle. 1928. The Mle. 1928 fired a heavier shell and had a modified shield; some mle. 1928s are reported to have been exported to Poland. Versions of this weapon were exported to Argentina (Mle. 1919), Bolivia (Mle. 1919?), Brazil (Mle. 1919), Chile (Mle. 1919), Greece (Mle. 1919), Montenegro, Paraguay, Peru (Mle. 1928?), Poland (Mle. 1919), Romania (Mle. 1919), Russia, Serbia and Yugoslavia (Mle. 1919). China is reported to have taken delivery of an unknown quantity of Mle.1919 mountain guns during the 1920s. Some guns of this type, apparently of Bolivian origin, later ended up being used during the Spanish Civil War.

75mm: Rheinmetall 7.5cm le.IG. L/13. This infantry gun is somewhat mysterious, and seems to have been contemporaneous to or even pre-dated the standard German army 7.5cm le.IG 18, however using a conventional ordnance and breech ring. It was characterized by its distinctive angled shield, tubular trails, and unusual disk wheels, with steel tires cushioned by solid rubber belts in the rims. The weapon is reported to have been used in small quantities by the Germans, but in fact may have originally been intended for export, apparently to China. There is a photo of this weapon in Chinese service during the 1930s. At least 12 of these weapons were delivered during the period of the German advisory mission between ca. 1932 and 1938. One report states that these guns were actually built by HIH Siderius (which was partially owned by Rheinmetall) in the Netherlands, and were delivered as early as 1930. There also seems to have been a 47mm barrel interchangeable with the 75mm ordnance for use as an anti-tank gun, but this does not seem to have figured amongst the Chinese deliveries. There also seems to have been a 65mm/37mm version of this weapon, of which one is reported to have been delivered to China.

75mm: 7.5cm le.IG 18 infantry gun. Some of these weapons have been reported to have been supplied to the Nationalist Chinese army during the period of the German military mission from ca. 1932 to 1938. An example of one of these small guns is in the military museum in Beijing.

75mm: Bofors M-1930 mountain gun. Bofors exported this weapon in large numbers not only to China, but also to Argentina (M-1936), Bulgaria (M-1936), the Netherlands East Indies (7.5cm berg), Siam, Switzerland (7.5cm GebK. 33), and Turkey (7.5cm/20 M. 30). Even the Germans purchased some, which they designated the 7.5 cm GebH. 34. Ets. John Cockerill in Belgium made the gun under license as the Canon de 75mm mle. 1934. Between 1933 and 1934, China was sold 72 guns taken from the combined 1928 and 1932 Turkish orders for 232 guns due to a default on payment.

75mm: Bofors M-1935 field gun. This new field gun has been reported to have been acquired by China prior to 1937. This weapon was a new Bofors design, with the hydro-pneumatic buffer in the cradle and a hydraulic recuperator on top, somewhat reminiscent of the German 10.5 cm leFH-18 in appearance. Argentina had taken delivery of 200 pieces out of 224 ordered (the balance of 24 was seized by Sweden to arm her own army; eight of the weapons were passed on to Finland in 1940). These guns were also purchased by Belgium (20) and Siam (52), and China is said to have purchased a few of these guns as well. Sweden used a slightly modified version designated M/40. Argentina passed on several of these guns to Bolivia in 1971, as well as to Paraguay around the same time. Argentina also supplied Uruguay a battery of the guns in 1979. Some 70 of these weapons were still in service or in reserve in Argentina as late as 2005.

75mm: Japanese Type 94 (model of 1934) mountain gun. This gun was designed to replace the earlier Type 41 mountain gun, and was captured and used in some quantity by the Chinese. It was capable of being broken down into eleven pieces for transport by mules.

75mm: U.S. M-1A1 pack howitzer. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied 637 of these howitzers to China from 1942, and it quickly became the most common artillery piece in use by Nationalist Chinese forces. Most of these weapons were supplied to China with the older wooden artillery wheel shod M-1 carriage instead of the later pneumatic tired M-8 carriage. Many of these weapons would later be used by the PLA against U.N forces during the Korean War.

75mm: U.S. M-1A1 field howitzer. The U.S. Lend Lease program supplied 125 of these howitzers to the Chinese. They used the same ordnance as the M-1A1 pack howitzer, however they were characterized by their split trails and pneumatic tires on rotatable stub axles capable of being lifted clear of the ground, with the weapon pivoting on a firing pedestal.

*76.2mm: various Russian and Soviet field guns, mountain guns and infantry support guns, including unknown quantities of modified Putilov M-1902/30 field guns; Putilov M-1910 (76-10g) infantry guns; M-1927 (76-27g) infantry guns; and the

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