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  • The Black Death [Scanned]
    • JVH say (Login JVH)
      Sufi
      Posted Oct 6, 2010 5:59 PM

       

      The Black Death began in Asia and soon spread to Europe
      where it killed well over 25 million people (about one third
      of Europe's total population) in less than four years. Some
      historians put the casualty figure closer to 35 to 40 million
      people, or about half of all Europeans.

      The epidemic first spread through Europe between 1347
      and 1350. The Bubonic Plague continued to strike Europe
      with decreasing fatality every ten to twenty years in shortlived
      outbreaks all the way up until the 1700's. Although it
      is difficult to calculate the total number of deaths from that
      400-year period, it is believed that over 100 million people
      may have died from the Plague.

      Two types of plague are believed to have caused the Black
      Death. The first is the "bubonic" type, which was the most
      common. The bubonic form of plague is characterized by
      swellings of the lymph nodes; the swellings are called
      "buboes." The buboes are accompanied by vomiting, fever,
      and death within several days if not treated. This form of
      plague is not contagious between human beings: it requires
      an active carrier, such as a flea. For this reason, many historians
      believe that flea-infested rodents caused the Bubonic
      Plague.

      Rodents are known to carry the disease even today.
      A number of records from between 1347 and the late 1600's
      speak of rodent infestations prior to several outbreaks of the
      Black Death, lending credence to the rodent theory.
      The second form of plague contributing to the Black
      Death is a highly contagious type known as "pneumonic"
      plague. It is marked by shivering, rapid breathing, and the
      coughing up of blood. Body temperatures are high and death
      normally follows three to four days after the disease has been
      contracted. This second type of plague is nearly always fatal
      and transmits best in cold weather and in poor ventilation.
      Some physicians today believe it was this second form, the
      "pneumonic" plague, which was responsible for most of the
      casualties of the Black Death because of the crowding and
      poor hygienic conditions then prevalent in Europe.

      We would normally shake our heads at this tragic period
      of human history and be thankful that modern medicine
      has developed cures for these dread diseases. However,
      troubling enigmas about the Black Death still linger. Many
      outbreaks occurred in summer during warm weather in
      uncrowded regions. Not all outbreaks of bubonic plague
      were preceded by rodent infestation; in fact, only a minority
      of cases seemed to be related to an increase in the presence
      of vermin. The greatest puzzle about the Black Death is how
      it was able to strike isolated human populations which had
      no contact with earlier infected areas. The epidemics also
      tended to end abruptly.

      To solve these puzzles, an historian would normally look
      to records from the Plague years to see what people were
      reporting. When he does so, he encounters stories so stunning
      and unbelievable that he is likely to reject them as
      the fantasies and superstitions of badly frightened minds.
      A great many people throughout Europe and other Plaguestricken
      regions of the world were reporting that outbreaks
      of the Plague were caused by foul-smelling "mists." Those
      mists frequently appeared after unusually bright lights in the
      sky. The historian quickly discovers that "mists" and bright
      lights were reported far more frequently and in many more
      locations than were rodent infestations. The Plague years
      were, in fact, a period of heavy UFO activity.

      What; then, were the mysterious mists?
      There is another very important way in which plague
      germs can be transmitted: through germ weapons. The United
      States and the Soviet Union today have stockpiles of
      biological weapons containing bubonic plague and other
      epidemic diseases. The germs are kept alive in cannisters
      which spray the diseases into the air on thick, often visible,
      artificial mists. Anyone breathing in the mist will inhale
      the disease. There are enough such germ weapons today
      to wipe out a good portion of humanity. Reports of identical
      disease-inducing mists from the Plague years strongly
      suggest that the Black Death was caused by germ warfare.
      Let us take a look at the incredible reports which lead to
      that conclusion.

      The first outbreak of the Plague in Europe followed an
      unusual series of events. Between 1298 and 1314, seven
      large "comets" were seen over Europe; one was of "aweinspiring
      blackness." One year before the first outbreak of
      the epidemic in Europe, a "column of fire" was reported over
      the Pope's* palace at Avignon, France. Earlier that year, a
      "ball of fire" was observed over Paris; it reportedly remained
      visible to observers for some time. To the people of Europe,
      these sightings were considered omens of the Plague which
      soon followed.

      It is true that some reported "comets" were probably
      just that: comets. Some may also have been small meteors
      or fireballs (large blazing meteors). Centuries ago, people
      were generally far more superstitious than they are today
      and so natural meteors and similar prosaic phenomena were
      often reported as precursors to later disasters even though
      there was no real-life connection. On the other hand, it
      is important to note that almost any unusual object in
      the sky was called a "comet." A good example is found
      in a bestselling book published in 1557: A Chronicle of
      Prodigies and Portents . . .** by Conrad Lycosthenes. On
      page 494 of Lycosthenes' book we read of a "comet"
      observed in the year 1479:

      "A comet was seen in Arabia
      in the manner of a sharply pointed wooden beam ..." The
      accompanying illustration, which was based on eyewitness
      descriptions, shows what clearly looks like the front half
      of a rocketship among some clouds. The object appears
      to have many portholes. Today we would call the object a
      UFO, not a comet. This leads us to wonder how many other
      ancient "comets" were actually similar rocketlike objects.
      When we are confronted with-an old report of a comet,
      we therefore do not really know what kind of thing we
      are dealing with unless there is a fuller description. A
      report of a sudden increase in "comets" or similar celestial
      phenomena may, in fact, mean an increase in UFO
      activity.

      ------
      * This was a second unauthorized pope who assumed the title as the result
      of a schism within the Catholic Church.
      The complete title is, A chronicle of prodigies and portents that have
      occurred beyond the right order, operation and working of nature, in
      both the upper and lower regions of the earth, from the beginning of
      the world up to these present times.
      ------

      The link between unusual aerial phenomena and the Black
      Death was established immediately during the first outbreaks
      of the Plague in Asia. As one historian tells us:
      The first reports [of the Plague] came out of the
      East. They were confused, exaggerated, frightening,
      as reports from that quarter of the world so often are:
      descriptions of storms and earthquakes: of meteors
      and comets trailing noxious gases that killed trees and
      destroyed the fertility of the land...

      The above passage indicates that strange flying objects
      were doing more than just spreading disease: they were also
      apparently spraying chemical or biological defoliants from
      the air. The above passage echoes the ancient Mesopotamian
      tablets which described defoliation of the landscape by
      ancient Custodial "gods." Many human casualties from the
      Black Death may have been caused by such defoliants.
      The connection between aerial phenomena and plague had
      begun centuries before the Black Death. We saw examples
      in our earlier discussion of Justinian's Plague. We read
      from another source about a large plague that had reportedly
      broken out in the year 1117almost 250 years before the
      Black Death. That plague was also preceded by unusual
      celestial phenomena:

      In 1117, in January, a comet passed like a fiery army
      from the North towards the Orient, the moon was
      o'ercast blood-red in an eclipse, a year later a light
      appeared more brilliant than the sun. This was followed
      by great cold, famine, and plague, of which one-third
      of humanity is said to have perished.

      ------
      I have seen no mention of this plague in any other history book. It may
      have been a local plague which destroyed not a third of humanity, but
      a third of the afflicted population.
      ------

      Once the medieval Black Death got started, noteworthy
      aerial phenomena continued to accompany the dread epidemic.
      Reports of many of these phenomena were assembled
      by Johannes Nohl and published in his book, The Black
      Death, A Chronicle of the Plague (1926). According to Mr.
      Nohl, at least 26 "comets" were reported between 1500 and
      1543. Fifteen or sixteen were seen between 1556 and 1597.
      In the year 1618, eight or nine were observed. Mr. Nohl
      emphasizes the connection which people perceived between
      the "comets" and subsequent epidemics:

      In the year 1606 a comet was seen, after which a
      general plague traversed the world. In 1582 a comet
      brought so violent a plague upon Majo, Prague,
      Thuringia, the Netherlands, and other places that in
      Thuringia it carried off 37,000 and in the Netherlands
      46,415.4

      From Vienna, Austria, we get the following description of
      an event which happened in 1568. Here we see a connection
      between an outbreak of Plague and an object described in
      a manner remarkably similar to a modern cigar or beamshaped
      UFO:

      When in sun and moonlight a beautiful rainbow and
      a fiery beam were seen hovering above the church
      of St. Stephanie, which was followed by a violent
      epidemic in Austria, Swabia, Augsberg, Wuertemberg,
      Nuremburg, and other places, carrying off human
      beings and cattle.

      Sightings of unusual aerial phenomena usually occurred
      from several minutes to a year before an outbreak of Plague.
      Where there was a gap between such a sighting and the
      arrival of the Plague, a second phenomenon was sometimes
      reported: the appearance of frightening humanlike figures
      dressed in black. Those figures were often seen on the outskirts
      of a town or village and their presence would signal the
      outbreak of an epidemic almost immediately. A summary
      written in 1682 tells of one such visit a century earlier:
      In Brandenburg [in Germany] there appeared in 1559
      horrible men, of whom at first fifteen and later on
      twelve were seen. The foremost had beside their posteriors
      little heads, the others fearful faces and long
      scythes, with which they cut at the oats, so that the
      swish could be heard at a great distance, but the oats
      remained standing. When a quantity of people came
      running out to see them, they went on with their
      mowing.

      The visit of the strange men to the oat fields was followed
      immediately by a severe outbreak of the Plague in
      Brandenburg.

      This incident raises intriguing questions: who were the
      mysterious figures? What were the long scythe-like instruments
      they held that emitted a loud swishing sound? It
      appears that the "scythes" may have been long instruments
      designed to spray poison or germ-laden gas. This would
      mean that the townspeople misinterpreted the movement
      of the "scythes" as an attempt to cut oats when, in fact, the
      movements were the act of spraying aerosols on the town.
      Similar men dressed in black were reported in Hungary:

      . . . in the year of Christ 1571 was seen at Cremnitz
      in the mountain towns of Hungary on Ascension Day
      in the evening to the great perturbation [disturbance]
      of all, when on the Schuelersberg there appeared so
      many black riders that the opinion was prevalent that
      the Turks were making a secret raid, but who rapidly
      disappeared again, and thereupon a raging plague
      broke out in the neighborhood.

      Strange men dressed in black, "demons," and other terrifying
      figures were observed in other European communities.
      The frightening creatures were often observed carrying long
      "brooms," "scythes," or "swords" that were used to "sweep"
      or "knock at" the doors of people's homes. The inhabitants
      of those homes fell ill with plague afterwards. It is from these
      reports that people created the popular image of "Death" as
      a skeleton or demon carrying a scythe. The scythe came
      to symbolize the act of Death mowing down people like
      stalks of grain. In looking at this haunting image of death,
      we may, in fact, be staring into the face of the UFO.

      Of all the phenomena connected to the Black Death, by
      far the most frequently reported were the strange, noxious
      "mists." The vapors were often observed even when the
      other phenomena were not. Mr. Nohl points out that moist
      pestilential fogs were "a feature which preceded the epidemic
      throughout its whole course." A great many physicians
      of the time took it for granted that the strange mists caused
      the Plague. This connection was established at the very
      beginning of the Black Death, as Mr. Nohl tells us:

      The origin of the plague lay in China, there it is said to
      have commenced to rage already in the year 1333, after
      a terrible mist emitting a fearful stench and infecting
      the air.

      Another account stresses that the Plague did not spread
      from person to person, but was contracted by breathing the
      deadly stinking air:

      During the whole of the year 1382 there was no wind,
      in consequence of which the air grew putrid, so that an
      epidemic broke out, and the plague did not pass from
      one man to another, but everyone who was killed by
      it got it straight from the air.

      Reports of deadly "mists" and "pestilential fogs" came
      from all Plague-infested parts of the world:
      A Prague chronicle describes the epidemic in China,
      India and Persia; and the Florentine historian Matteo
      Villani, who took up the work of his brother Giovanni
      after he had died of the plague in Florence, relays
      the account of earthquakes and pestilential fogs from
      a traveller in Asia; ...
      The same historian continues:

      A similar incident of earthquake and pestilential fog
      was reported from Cyprus, and it was believed that
      the wind had been so poisonous that men were struck
      down and died from it.
      He adds:

      German accounts speak of a heavy vile-smelling mist
      which advanced from the East and spread itself over
      Italy.

      That author states that in other countries:
      . .. people were convinced that they could contract
      the disease from the stench, or even, as is sometimes
      described, actually see the plague coming through the
      streets as a pale fog.
      He summarizes, rather dramatically:

      The earth itself seemed in a state of convulsion, shuddering
      and spitting, putting forth heavy poisonous
      winds that destroyed animals and plants and called
      swarms of insects to life to complete the destruction.

      Similar happenings are echoed by other writers. A journal
      from 1680 reported this odd incident:

      That between Eisenberg and Dornberg thirty funeral
      biers [casket stands] all covered with black cloth were
      seen in broad daylight, among them on a bier a black
      man was standing with a white cross. When these had
      disappeared a great heat set in so that the people in
      this place could hardly stand it. But when the sun
      had set they perceived so sweet a perfume as if they
      were in a garden of roses. By this time they were all
      plunged in perturbation. Whereupon the epidemic set
      in in Thuringia in many places.
      Further south, in Vienna:

      .. . evil smelling mists are blamed, as indicative of the
      plague, and of these, indeed, several were observed last
      autumn.

      Direct from the plague-ravaged town of Eisleben, we get
      this amusing and perhaps exaggerated newspaper account
      published on September 1, 1682:

      In the cemetary of Eisleben on the 6th inst. [?] at
      night the following incident was noticed: When during
      the night the gravediggers were hard at work digging
      trenches, for on many days between eighty and ninety
      have died, they suddenly observed that the cemetary
      church, more especially the pulpit, was lighted up
      by bright sunshine. But on their going up to it so
      deep a darkness and black, thick fog came over the
      graveyard that they could hardly see one another, and
      which they took to be an evil omen. Thus day and night
      gruesome evil spirits are seen frightening the people,
      goblins grinning at them and pelting them, but also
      many white ghosts and spectres ..
      The same newspaper story later adds:

      When Magister Hardte expired in his agony a blue
      smoke was seen to rise from his throat, and this in
      the presence of the dean; the same has been observed
      in the case of others expiring. In the same manner blue
      smoke has been observed to rise from the gables of
      houses at Eisleben all the inhabitants of which have
      died. In the church of St. Peter blue smoke has been
      observed high up near the ceiling; on this account the
      church is shunned, particularly as the parish has been
      exterminated.

      The "mists" or Plague poisons were thick enough to mix
      with normal air moisture and become part of the morning
      dew. People were warned to take the following precautions:

      If newly baked bread is placed for the night at the end
      of a pole and in the morning is found to be mildewed
      and internally grown green, yellow and uneatable, and
      when thrown to fowls and dogs causes them to die from
      eating it, in a similar manner if fowls drink the morning
      dew and die in consequence, then the plague poison is
      near at hand.

      As noted earlier, lethal "mists" were directly associated
      with bright moving lights in the sky. Other sources for
      the stenches were also reported. For example, Forestus
      Alcmarianos wrote of a monstrous "whale" he had encountered
      which was:
      28 ells [105 feet] in length and 14 ells [33 feet] broad
      which, coming from the western sea, was thrown upon
      the shore of Egemont by great waves and was unable
      to reach the open again; it produced so great a foulness
      and malignity of the air that very soon a great epidemic
      broke out in Egemont and neighborhood.

      It is a shame that Mr. Alcmarianos did not provide a more
      detailed description of the deadly whale because it may
      have been a craft similar to modern UFOs which have
      been observed entering and leaving bodies of water. On
      the other hand, Mr. Alcmarianos' whale may have been
      just that: a dead rotting whale which happened to wash up
      on shore just before a nearby outbreak of the Plague.

      It is significant that foul mists and bad air were blamed
      for many other epidemics in history. During a plague in
      ancient Rome, the famous physician Hippocrates (ca. 460-
      337 B.C.) stated that the disease was caused by body disturbances
      brought on by changes in the atmosphere. To
      remedy this, Hippocrates had people build large public
      bonfires. He believed that large fires would set the air
      aright. Hippocrates' advice was followed centuries later by
      physicians during the medieval Plague. Modern doctors take
      a dim view of Hippocrates' advice on this matter, however,
      in the belief that Hippocrates was ignorant about the true
      causes of plague. In reality, huge outdoor bonfires were the
      only conceivable defense against the Plague if it was indeed
      caused by germ-saturated aerosols. Vaccines to combat the
      Plague had not been invented and so the people's only hope
      was to burn away the deadly "mists" with fire. Hippocrates
      and those who followed his advice may have actually saved
      some lives.

      Significantly, bubonic and pneumonic plagues were not
      the only infectious diseases in history to be spread on
      strange lethal fogs. The deadly intestinal disease, cholera,
      was another:

      When cholera broke out on board Her Majesty's ship
      Britannia in the Black Sea in 1854, several officers
      and men asserted positively that, immediately prior
      to the outbreak, a curious dark mist swept up from
      the sea and passed over the ship. The mist had barely
      cleared the vessel when the first case of disease was
      announced.

      Blue mists were also reported in connection with the
      cholera outbreaks of 1832 and 1848-1849 in England.
      As mentioned earlier, plagues had a very strong religious
      significance. In the Bible, plagues were said to be
      Jehovah's method of punishing people for evil. "Omens"
      preceding outbreaks of the Black Death resembled many
      of the "omens" reported in the Bible:

      Men confronted with the terror of the Black Death
      were impressed by the chain of events leading up to
      the final plague, and accounts of the coming of the
      14th-century pestilence selected from among all the
      ominous events that must have occurred in the years
      preceding the outbreak of 1348 those which closely
      resemble the ten plagues of Pharoah: disruptions in
      the atmosphere, storms, unusual invasions of insects,
      celestial phenomena.

      In addition, the Bubonic form of plague was very similar,
      if not identical, to some of the punishments inflicted by
      "God" in the Old Testament:

      But the hand of the Lord was heavy upon the people
      of Ashdod [a Philistine city], and he destroyed them,
      and killed them with emerods [painful swellings].
      1 SAMUEL 5:6
      . .. the hand of the Lord was against the city [Gath,
      another Philistine city] with a very great destruction:
      and he killed the men of the city, both young and old,
      and they had emerods in their secret parts.
      1 SAMUEL 5:9
      . .. there was a deadly destruction throughout all the
      city; the hand of God was very heavy there.
      And the men that survived were afflicted with the
      emerods: and the crying of the city went up to heaven.
      1 SAMUEL 5:11-12

      The religious aspect of the medieval Black Death was
      enhanced by reports of thundering sounds in connection
      with outbreaks of the Plague. The sounds were similar to
      those described in the Bible as accompanying the appearance
      of Jehovah. Interestingly, they are also sounds common to
      some UFO sightings:

      During the plague of 1565 in Italy rumblings of thunder
      were heard day and night, as in a war, together with the
      turmoil and noise as of a mighty army. In Germany in
      many places a noise was heard as if a hearse were
      passing through the streets of its own accord .. .
      Similar noises accompanied strange aerial phenomena
      in remarkable Plague-related sightings from England. The
      object described in the quote below remained visible for
      over a week and does appear to be a true comet or planet
      (such as Venus); however, some of the other objects can
      only be labeled "unidentified." Historian Walter George
      Bell, drawing on writings from the period, summarized:

      London citizens sat up to watch a new blazing star,
      with "mighty talk" thereupon. King Charles II and his
      Queen gazed out of the windows at Whitehall. About
      east it rose, reaching no great altitude, and sank below
      the south-west horizon between two and three o'clock.
      In a week or two it was gone, then letters came from
      Vienna notifying the like sight of a brilliant comet,
      and "in the ayr [air] the appearance of a Coffin, which
      causes great anxiety of thought amongst the people."
      Erfurt saw with it other terrible apparitions, and listeners
      detected noises in the air, as of fires, and sounds of
      cannon and musket-shot. The report ran that one night
      in the February following hundreds of persons had seen
      flames of fire for an hour together, which seemed to
      be thrown from Whitehall to St. James and then back
      again to Whitehall, whereafter they disappeared.
      In March there came into the heavens a yet brighter
      comet visible two hours after midnight, and so continuing
      till daylight. With such ominous portents the
      Great Plague in London was ushered in.

      Other less frequent "omens" were also reported in connection
      with the Black Death. Some of those phenomena
      were obvious fictions. Significantly, the fictions were not
      widespread and were rarely reported outside of the communities
      in which they originated.

      The preceding quotes provide evidence that UFOs (i.e.
      the Custodial society) have bombarded the human race with
      deadly diseases. This evidence is particularly intriguing
      when we consider claims made by a number of modern
      UFO contactees who say that they are relaying messages
      to mankind from the UFO society. Some of them claim that
      UFOs are here to help mankind and that UFOs will eradicate
      disease on Earth. The UFO civilization reportedly has no
      disease. If the Custodial civilization is indeed so healthy,
      perhaps it is only because it is not bombarding itself with
      germ weapons. If UFOs truly intended to bring health to
      the human race, maybe all they needed to do was to stop
      spraying infectious biological agents into the air.

      The Black Death not only killed a great many people,
      it also caused deep psychological and social wounds. People
      in the past were convinced that the epidemics were
      God's punishment for sin, and this caused deep introversion.
      It was natural for people to accuse themselves and
      their neighbors of wickedness and to wonder what they
      had done to "deserve" their punishment. It rarely occurred
      to the victims that plagues, even if deliberately inflicted,
      had nothing to do with trying to make human beings more
      virtuous.

      After all, the social and psychological effects of the
      Plague produced the opposite result. The misery and despair
      generated by the massive death tolls brought about widespread
      ethical decay. In a dying environment, many people
      will no longer care about whether their actions are right or
      wrong; they are going to die anyway. In the fearful climate
      of the medieval Plague, spiritual values noticably declined
      and mental aberration sharply increased. The same results
      are observed during war. Although the Bible and other religious
      works may preach that plagues and wars are created
      by "God" to ultimately make the human race more virtuous
      and spiritually advanced, the effect is always the opposite.

      The cataclysmic nature of the Black Death overshadowed
      another disastrous occurrence of the Plague years: a
      renewed attempt by Christians to exterminate the Jews. False
      accusations circulated that Jews were causing the Plague
      by poisoning wells. These rumors stirred up a fearsome
      hatred of the Jews inside those Christian communities being
      devastated by the epidemic. Many Christians participated in
      the genocides, which may have claimed as many lives, if
      not more, than the slaughter of Jews by the Nazis in the
      20th century. According to Collier's Encyclopedia:

      That country [Germany] figured . . . as the site of brutal
      massacres on the widest possible scale, which periodically
      swept the country from end to end. These
      culminated at the time of the terrible plague of 1348-
      1349, known as the Black Death. Perhaps because
      their medical knowledge and hygienic way of life
      rendered them somewhat less susceptible than others,
      the Jews were preposterously accused of having
      deliberately propagated the plague, and hundreds of
      Jewish communities, large and small, were blotted
      out of existence or reduced to insignificance.

      After this, only a broken remnant remained in the country,
      mainly in the petty lordships which protected
      and even encouraged them for the sake of financial
      advantages which they brought. Only a few large German
      Jewish communities, such as Frankfurt-am-Main
      or Worms, managed to maintain an unbroken existence
      from Medieval times onward.

      The genocides were often instigated by German trade
      guilds, which excluded Jews from membership. Many of
      those guilds were direct offshoots of the ancient Brotherhood
      guilds. In fact, membership in Brotherhood organizations
      and European trade guilds still overlapped heavily in the
      14th century with leadership in the guilds often being held
      by men who were members of other Brotherhood organizations.
      Here again was an instance in which the corrupted
      Brotherhood network was a significant contributor, if not
      the primary source, of a major historical genocide.
      Germany was not the only nation to host Jewish slaughters.
      The same occurred in Spain.

      In 1391, a massacreof Jews was perpetrated throughout much
      of the Spanish peninsula.
      Although frightened Christians supplied the manpower
      for these terrible genocides, their activities were not always
      endorsed by the Papacy. To the credit of Clement VI,
      who served as Pope from 1342 until 1352, he tried almost
      immediately to protect the Jews from massacre. Clement
      VI issued two Papal bulls declaring the Jews to be innocent
      of the charges against them. The bulls called upon all
      Christians to cease their persecutions. Clement VI did not
      fully succeed, however, because by that time many of the
      secretive trade guilds had become a united faction engaged
      in anti-Papal activity. Pope Clement also did not dismantle
      the Inquisition, and the Inquisition did much to create the
      generally oppressive social climate in which such massacres
      could occur.

      The combination of Plague, Inquisition, and genocide
      provided all of the elements needed to fulfill apocalyptic
      prophecy. The Catholic Church was on the brink of collapse
      due to the many clergymen lost to the Plague and from the
      loss of popular faith in the Church caused by the Church's
      inability to bring an end to "God's Disease." A great many
      people were proclaiming that the "End Days" were at hand.
      True to prophecy, out of this tumult emerged new "messengers
      from God" with promises of an imminent Utopia.
      The teachings and proclamations of those new messiahs
      had an electrifying effect on the ravaged Europeans and
      brought about an event of major importance: the Protestant
      Reformation.

      William Bramley, "Gods of Eden", Chapter 18, "The Black Death"
      p. 179--195. Copyright © 1989 AVON BOOKS ISBN: 0-380-71807-3




      We all are fallible in whatever area(s), except, of course
      for ardent believers, politicians and James Bond.


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