I'm not really trained in golf psychology, like my friends Dr Patrick Cohn, Dr Robert Winters, and Dr Tony Piparo. What I know best is the brain, and some of that of course includes includes emotions and distractions. With that said, let me try to answer your questions about distractions and focus in putting "under pressure" or on the course. Or at least address those issues from my perspective of how the brain works in putting.
Two big categories of "influences" that cause problems in golf and putting in particular are "sudden" and "persistent." A photographer or a fan "snapping" a picture in the backstroke is an example of the sudden sort. Given golf's rules of etiquette, these sudden distractions (noise, movement, mostly) are unexpected and short-lived. This seems to be the sort of distractions that Tiger's father was using. The other sort, which I term "persistent," would include mental, physical, or emotional state; competitive situation; and a few other sorts (e.g., weather) that continue more or less throughout the round, or at least over a hole or two. This is more the sort that your list describes, and that Hogan was referring to.
The way a golfer can respond to these sources of distraction or performance decrement differ. The brain is essentially made to react to stimuli in the world. That's how we survive. Sudden stimuli are especially strong in attracting the brain's attention system. It's just the way we are "wired" with self-protective instincts. The same system that blinks the eye reacts to the shutter click. Many, many experiments in neuroscience start with watching the EEG brainwave readout change when the experimenter clicks a simple toy. The brain just simply reacts. We can't really stop it.
However, we can (metaphorically speaking) stop our ears. Ulysses, in sailing past the Sirens singing ships to their death upon the rocks, had himself lashed to the mast but ordered his men all to stuff up their ears and row past. Lashed to the mast, Ulysses was able to listen to the enchanting song. Jack Nicklaus, when once playing in Britain on a course bordered by a train track, studied a putt and stood frozen at address and then sank the putt, and never noticed the sudden blaring of the train horn next to the course. In terms of the brain, concentration and focus on a specific task can be at a level of intensity that swaddles us inside a noise-proof cocoon. Right now, if you are in a room with the television playing, you can simply look down at the floor and study it until you start to lose awareness of the tv program. Part of the explanation for this is that our attention system is somewhat limited, and if we actually fill it with one task or subject, the brain necessarily excludes (or neglects to notice) the non-task stimuli. The trick is being able to "go there" in terms of focus and concentration.
Children of a young age (toddlers) are essentially "there" all the time. Everything they do is focused because they live in a certain brain state that has more theta patterns than adults, who have more beta dominance. To adults, theta is associated with dreaminess. But to children, theta is "taking it all in without judgment or analysis." The best way I know to get that sort of "easy" but "intense" focus is to live the moment of the putt, only.
By that, I mean train yourself to have no frame of reference other than doing your best on this one putt. No before, no after. No conserquences, no praise, no blame, no reward, no punishment. No Past, no Future. Just now. When you think and act this way, you are necessarily interested in seeing and feeling and doing, with the precision and elegance of a master. The reason why zen archery has highly ritualized stages in the shooting of the arrow is that performing the ritual is what brings forth the state of mind. In a real sense, the performance of the ritual of shooting the arrow, correctly and respectfully, is more important than whether the arrow hits the bullseye. In putting, you might want to become as mute and deaf as the ball in the ritual of executing the putt. That ought to help a bit with the "sudden" sort of distractions, but probably not totally.
With respect to the more common "persistent" distractions from excellent performance, staying in the moment certainly helps diminish their potency. But there are also basic longstanding attitudes (which may grow into beliefs) that can also help. One is "golf is just a game, and if I miss this putt, there are about 6 billion people who don't know and don't care." Others might be, "play your own game," "play the course, not your companions," "just because I missed that short putt doesn't mean I have to pull-hook my next drive into the woods," "the score never depends on one stroke, but accumulates throughout the round or event," and the like. In addition, you ought to monitor your state of mind, pyschologically and emotionally, with the idea that anything other than playing the game as well as you can is not helpful. Game management skills and phsyical fitness and nutrition / energy level monitoring are also helpful. Traditional golf psychs have a lot of value to offer along these lines.
At home, I would suggest putting while having the radio or television on, and paying attention to how well you can block out anything other than the putt. You can also train yourself to cabin all internal self-talk or thinking to the early stages of your ritual, so that the mind is silent during the final phases of execution of the putt. Train yourself to pay attention to your internal voice, so you can shut it up. As far as emotional disruptions are concerned, the mental stuff is a good first layer of protection, and there are also relaxation techniques that recapture control of breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and the "racing mind." Most of this is breathing control. So you can practice using controlled breathing to change you body's "speed."
In general, when we are engaged in everyday activities, our brains are set at a speed and in a mode (reactive, random short thoughts, emotional fluxes) that is ill-suited to the slow-paced, easy concentration required for putting. When you arrive at the practice green in your car, the first five to ten minutes of practice are worthless, since it takes that long or longer to tune in to the situation of sinking putts. So, at home, try just taking up your putter on the way to work, and see if you can concentrate immediately and get down to a very smooth tempo with good target focus. Then you can solidify this with some sort of personal signalling, like a form of self-hypnosis, as a part of your routine, to transform yourself down to this more useful state of mind.
That's about all I can offer right now, but obviously this area needs a lot of study and work. It's not understood nearly well enough, or as well as it could be.
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