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The "Arcing Stroke" is an Urban Myth

April 20 2015 at 11:07 PM

Geoff Mangum  (Login aceputt)
Owner
from IP address 71.54.49.198

 
The "arcing" stroke is an urban myth. The main putting guru associated with this stroke -- Stan Utley -- taught the arcing stroke in his 2006 book The Art of Putting: The Revolutionary Feel-Based System for Improving Your Score, supposedly describing his personal stroke that he had been using 30 years since his college days in 1974. In his book, Stan said he rotated his chest and shoulders horizontally back and thru while also rolling his forearms and hands "open" (rear hand supinating) in the backstroke and rolling closed (lead hand supinating) in the thru-stroke. But Stan learned afterwards that he had MIS-DESCRIBED his personal stroke action when he wrote the book. In about 2008, having taught the stroke motion he wrote in the book for two years, Stan was filmed by a golf teacher in Chicago who had invited him to lecture, and then showed Stan that his stroke motion was not turning the shoulders back and thru or rotating his forearms open and then closed. Stan was then puzzled for another year or so trying to find out and accurately describe what he actually had been doing for 30+ years. And he ADMITTED in future lectures that his book was incorrect, and did NOT describe his stroke, but he still sells it. In fact, as he later learned in about 2009 or 2010 by asking another golf teacher to tell him what he did with his body for his stroke, Stan learned that he personally swings his arms straight back and straight thru, with his motion on a plane that is slightly tilted off vertical. Once he had his personal stroke explained to him, he changed to teaching a straight-back, straight-thru action on a tilted plane. he solidified this new teaching by holding a shaft inside the upper arms of students to make them swing straight back and thru along the shaft, and also by making a training aid he named (ironically?) the "Learning Curve", which in fact is simply a plank leaning back on a tilt for golfers to slide the putter head straight-back and straight-thru on a tilted plane.

The "Putting Arc" training aid is similarly delusional. The shape of the front vertical face of the Putting Arc is a curve or bulge, and the golfer supposedly traces this shape with the putter head by making an "arcing" stroke. Marks on the flat top of the aid show the putter face supposed to be "open" in the backstroke and then on the corresponding place in the forward stroke the putter face mark shows the face to be "closed". None of this is an accurate portrayal of the motion that traces the Putting Arc.

THAT motion is traced by a robot selling the Putting Arc named "Iron Archie", and Archie can ONLY move straight back and straight thru, either in a vertical plane or on a tilted plane of some angle of tilt. The "Putting Arc" is ACTUALLY traced by moving straight back and straight thru on a tilted plane that is tilted 14 degrees off vertical. The "neck pole" of Iron Archie is set by tilting it up 14 degrees from horizontal (parallel to floor or green surface) , and then the arm assembly is stuck onto this neck pole inserted thru a hole in the arm assembly halfway between the "shoulders", and the whole arm assembly swings straight back and straight thru on this tilted neck pole.

The putter head then in the backstroke both rises and comes up to the inside closer to the golfer on the tilted plane, and then symmetrically does the opposite in the forward stroke. The putter heel contacting the Putting Arc vertical face at the mid-point of the stroke is X inches from the golfer's feet, but the top of the backstroke has the putter heel higher and closer to the golfer up the tilted plank, and the forward stroke on the opposite side similarly has the putter heel high and closer to the feet. Between these three key locations -- top of vertical face at front left top of follow-thru, midpoint bottom of face at address position, and top of vertical face at top right of backstroke -- define the "bulge", but the tracing of the bulge is not done with an arcing stroke. The result LOOKS like an arc, but only if you watch the SHADOW of the sweetspot of the putter head in this motion, projected vertically down to the surface. The SURFACE SHADOW truly IS an ARC, but not the motion that makes it. That motion is straight back and straight thru on a tilt, and the putter face does NOT "open" in the backstroke and "close" in the thru-stroke, but remains square to the plank at all times.

This REALITY of the Putting Arc motion is revealed by the robot, but is also revealed by using an imaginary cheese cutter to shave off the front bulge: on the flat top of the Putting Arc, align the cheese slicer from the font-most corners of the bulge and aim the cutting sheet at the mid-point of the bulge on the bottom of the bulge -- then shave all the bulge off. What remains is a flat plank leaned back on a 14 degree angle. THAT is the shape traced by the robot and the shape that any golfer practicing on the Putting Arc should make to trace the shape. But that's not what they are selling, is it?
The basic NOTION among golfers that the body naturally swings on a circle is just that, a "notion". In fact, the full swing does not swing on a circle, although the upper torso and hips turn back and turn thru. The full swing motion is a flat plane on a tilt. A "circle" would swing the club head around the feet in a circle on the ground. And in any event, this has nothing to do with a putting stroke, when the upper torso does not rotate and the hips don't rotate either.

And yet, golfers will still "believe" the arms swing in a circle in a putting stroke, or at least swing in an arcing around the body, back and thru. OK, first face the fact that golfers never really think too much about anything …. What actually happens when a golfer bends forward, putts two hands together, and swings the arms, is that the arms and hands swing pretty straight wherever the golfer starts them in a backstroke. For example, if you setup a foot or so away from a doorknob and aim the shoulders and chest parallel to the path from the hands to the doorknob, and then start the hands straight back and slightly up, the hands will move straight and hit the doorknob, no problem. The hands do NOT "naturally" arc to the inside in a backstroke. What moves the hands to the inside in the backstroke is the GOLFER, either twisting the shoulders and chest and upper torso, or rolling the forearms top-over to the right in a right-handed backstroke, or even deliberately MOVING the hands along an arcing path to the inside, or a combination of these -- NONE of which are "natural" and NONE of which happen is a golfer simply starts the hands straight back and does nothing else or moves the hands straight back on purpose.

When the golfer does not "manufacture" an arc by moving his shoulders, or arms, or hands in a rotational arcing, the "natural" stroke can still appear to arc in the backstroke. What makes the backstroke "appear" to arc naturally is a combination of too-flat putter lies and weak muscle tone in the golfer. Unfortunately, both these factors are everywhere common in golf. The too-flat lie means there is an unnecessary "torque" weight on the putter head that, once the backstroke is in the air, presses the putter head and shaft inward toward the golfers feet, seeking equilibrium in gravity. That's ok UNLESS the golfer's muscle tone in the hands and arms is too weak to support this stroke-corrupting torque, and sadly that is exactly what golfers learn from bad teaching -- use as "light" a grip pressure as possible. Completely nuts. So, yes, putters being started back with light grip pressure will droop inward towards the feet as they rise in the backstroke, and this "looks like" the beginning of an arc-to-arc stroke. Sadly, golfers, seem completely ignorant about cause and effect, because while it is true the putter head "falls down" from torque in the backstroke, it certainly does NOT "fall back up" in the forward stroke. And yet golfers believe that an arc-to-arc stroke happens by itself! Completely stupid and delusional. NOTHING falls back up, and moreover, even if the putter "re-arced" itself in the forward stroke, who really thinks it will do so "just right" so the backstroke and thru-stroke exactly match for shape? The answer seems to be, sadly, almost all golfers! Enough, really.

And going forward, there again is NO ARCING that naturally happens in a putting stroke. What happens naturally is that that hands from the top of the backstroke swing straight down in gravity beneath the center of the neck and mid-point of the shoulders, and gain swinging momentum towards the target, and in Newtonian physics, the swinging GOES STRAIGHT. Nothing affects this straightness of swing between the feet except a golfer making the stroke PULL offline to arc to the inside. Eventually, of course, the up-swinging arms will reach an extent in the thru-swing where the arms droop inwardly back towards the feet. But there is no arcing between the feet, where the stroke occurs. But if a golfer WANTS an arc-to-arc stroke pattern, he cannot get one naturally between the feet, so what does he do to manufacture a shape? He "releases the putter", which is silly-talk for "he "closes" the face of the putter thru impact. This also does not happen thru impact "naturally", but must be practiced for hours and hours to try to manufacture the same closing rotational rate thru impact. And even if the golfer can actually DO THIS, it doesn't work too well under pressure, is not consistent, and also makes ball position, setup, stroke, and stroke timing consistency far too critically important. None of this nonsense is necessary.

Nor is it true that great putters USE an arcing stroke. Ben Crenshaw putts DEAD STRAIGHT thru impact, as seen in any photo of his finishes, where the putter sweetspot remains dead vertically above the aim line at address, and the putter face remains dead square to the aim line, and his lead shoulder does NOT twist of rotate to the inside but instead moves straight vertically up from its starting position at address vertically above the balls of his lead foot. Bobby Locke similarly drew his putter diagonally inside in the backstroke and retraced this diagonal line forward back to impact -- using a shoulder rotation for these beginning segments of his stroke -- BUT THEN thru impact he putted UP and STRAIGHT thru impact. Stan Utley also does not use an arcing motion, as he found out after writing incorrectly in his 2006 book that he BOTH twisted his shoulders horizontally in the back and thru (without ANY vertical component in his shoulder motion) and also rolled his forearms open in the backstroke and closed in the thru-stroke. He didn't in fact do this, as he subsequently found out. And so on.

Nor is the arcing stroke a good idea. OK, so you decide to make a faux-arcing stroke by moving straight-back and straight-thru on a tilted plane. Is that a good idea? No. Great golfers, including Crenshaw, Locke, Utley, Roberts, Stricker, and many others, putt STRAIGHT thru impact with a square face moving straight down the aim line, slightly rising vertically off the surface. That is, the backstroke is IRRELEVANT, and only the forward stroke matters. A "good" backstroke simply doesn't make the forward stroke unnecessarily difficult. But the backstroke does NOT have to be mirrored by the forward stroke. THIS "good" stroke straight thru does NOT happen when a golfer putts on a tilted plane.

What happens on a tilted plane is, first, the sweetspot moves "straight" in the sense that it stays on line with the line where the tilted plank meets the flat surface of the green -- a laser aimed the same angle as the tilt angle of the stroke will "trace" this straight line of intersection on the ground. Second, the putter face stays square to the tilted plane, and does not open or close. Third, the entire putter head rises and comes closer to the golfer in the backstroke and then past the bottom in the forward stroke again rises and comes closer to the golfer. Fourth, as the putter rises in the backstroke, the "aim" of the lofted putter face "de-lofts" and aims a bit down -- and a laser aiming 90 degrees off the center of the putter face will aim to the OUTSIDE of the intersection line or aim line, and in the forward stroke as the putter face rises, the face laser aims to the INSIDE of the aim line.

So altogether, this faux-arcing stroke has only one exact spot where the putter face aims where it is supposed to aim, and in any event the putter head thru impact will slide inside and rising with a bit of a cut stroke that has the putter face changing aim to the inside thru impact. No generally a good idea! The exact moment of impact -- critically dependent upon setup being always exactly the same, putter being always exactly the same, ball position being always exactly the same, stroke motion always being exactly the same for all putts long or short, and the timing of the stroke being always the same -- contrast very poorly to a "straight thru" stroke rising slightly vertically and staying online with a square face: this straight-thru stroke is NOT dependent upon setup and ball position consistency or even very dependent upon timing consistency, as the straight-thru stroke STAYS straight for nearly a foot so that any ball position from perfect at the bottom or mid-point of the usual stroke (beneath the neck or slightly left) to 4-6 inches in front of perfect all goes the same straight line at impact. The only critical matter is to make sure the putter face aim at impact is the same as it was at address before the stroke started.

Altogether, it is about time golfers stopped claiming the so-called "arcing" stroke is natural or athletic or instinctive. A straight-thru stroke is natural and athletic and much sounder and easier than the fake, delusional motion golfers are attempting to manufacture.

Cheers!

[linked image]

Geoff Mangum
Putting Coach and Theorist

PuttingZone.com -- over 200 Certified PuttingZone Coaches teaching in 21 Countries Worldwide and growing strong!
The best putting instruction in the history of the game -- integrating the Four Skills of putting (reading, aiming, stroking for line, and stroking for delivery pace) by combining all putting lore in history with modern science for physics, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor sports teaching and learning and performance, and especially the NEW brain science of the non-conscious processes of perception and movement action in putting skill.


    
This message has been edited by aceputt from IP address 71.54.49.31 on Apr 30, 2015 1:01 PM


 
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Geoff Mangum
(Login aceputt)
Owner
71.54.49.31

More Geometry of Putting Strokes

April 30 2015, 11:14 AM 

Folks,

To understand the different strokes that golfers make (especially for patterns of stroke path), it is not helpful or sensible to base conclusion upon some "measurements" of SOME golfers, as that does not define what human can or should do. And how these strokes work is also not "debatable", as if geometry and human movement and anatomy are "matters of individual opinion". So those are "dodges" of the religious fanatics among the "arcing cult" to avoid facing facts.

If the human FIXES A SHAPE of arms and hands and putter at address with the chest and shoulders parallel to the aim line of the putter face, there are three possible motions:

1. VERTICAL PLANE MOTION: the human moves the arms and hands and putter as a fixed shape without any changes in the armpits or elbows or wrists in a VERTICAL PLANE of motion, or moves the fixed-shape of arms and hands and putter in a VERTICAL PLANE of motion without changes in the elbows or wrists although the armpits change. Either of these fixed-shape VERTICAL PLANE motions move the sweetspot of the putter dead straight over the aim LINE, both back and thru, staying over the line the entire time although rising VERTICALLY above the line in the back and thru, and also moves the hands dead straight back and thru, and moves the elbows dead straight back and thru, and the putter face aim as defined by the top line of the putter face stays perfectly square to the aim line at all times back and thru, and a laser aimed perpendicular to the top line of the putter face never varies from the line aimed at address except it gets higher in the back and thru stroking.

I made a popsicle stick putter I named Popeye the Putting Robot. Here are pictures showing that a VERTICAL PLANE stroke moves the putter dead straight and the putter head remains dead square and perpendicular to both the aim line and the plane of motion, and the sweestpot moves is a dead straight line while rising slightly on the vertical pendular arc.

[linked image]

[linked image]

[linked image]

[linked image]

[linked image]

[linked image]

[linked image]

2. TILTED PLANE MOTION: the human moves the arms and hands and putter as a fixed shape as before but this time on a TILTED PLANE of motion -- for example, on a tilted plane that is the SAME as the lie angle of a conventional putter set 19 degrees back off vertical. This motion ALSO moves the putter head straight back and straight thru, just the same as sliding the butt of the putter straight back and straight thru on a PLANK that TILTS back to the golfer 19 degrees off vertical. The golfer's arms and hands also move as if sliding straight back and straight thru on a tilted plank. The putter sweetspot is X inches from the plane of the golfer's body at the address position at the bottom of the motion and at the top of the backstroke the sweetspot has both risen up the leaning plank and therefore also come closer to the golfer's body and is X-y away, and then at the top of the follow-thru the sweetspot has symmetrically risen up the plank and come closer and is again X-y distance from the golfer's body. Since the golfer's SHAPE did not change, that means that the elbows did not roll the forearms and hands open or closed and the wrists did not roll the hands open or closed, and therefore the putter face at ALL TIMES is perpendicular to the leaning plank, and at NO time does the putter face open or close in relation to the plank, and in fact the aim of the putter face at all times remains parallel to the aim it had at the bottom of the stroke at address to begin with although all these parallel laser beams come closer and rise higher in the back and thru. The sweetspot for this motion moves straight back and straight thru in relation to the intersection LINE of the tilted plane and the surface.

These pictures show Popeye making a Tilted Plane stroke -- the tilt angle is something like 14 degrees. Notice how the putter head comes closer to Popeye and yet remains SQUARE or PERPENDICULAR to the aim line and the TILED PLANE, and does not fan open.

[linked image]

[linked image]

3. ARCING MOTION: the human rotates the shoulders closed (rear shoulder to inside back, which "opens" the putter face to the at-address aim line, aiming outside the line) in the backstroke and then open in the thru-stroke (lead shoulder to the inside back, which "closes" the putter face to the at-address aim line, aiming inside the line) with the rest of the shape not changing and this is performed by rotating the spine, or keeps the chest and shoulders the same parallel aim to the aim line as at address but rolls the arms and hands as a fixed shape first inside going back then inside going thru, and this is performed by rolling the armpits and elbows but keeping the spine and chest stationary, or the human swings the elbows straight back and straight thru while rolling the forearms and hands inside back then inside thru while the armpits and spine do not change. This motion fans the putter face open and closed in relation to the aim line, and the hands do NOT move in a straight line back and thru on a vertical plane or a tilted plane, and the sweetspot does not runs straight above the aim line or run straight in relation to any LINE of intersection of a tilted plane and the ground, but actually CURLS in the three dimensions of space. Depending upon whether the curling is done with the shoulders or the arms or the hands, the putter face also CURLS in the three dimensions of space, even if golfers speak of the putter face remaining "square to the plane" of the stroke: that's not true since there is NO plane. Golfers also sometimes speak of the putter face remaining "square to the path", and that may be true enough, except for the fact that the path is "some sort of" curling. And the exact CURLING of the putter head and sweetspot DEPENDS on the variations used by the golfer, first this time and then that time.

The "arcing stroke cult" guys just don't know any of this and get it all messed up with their MIS-statements.

The geometry of the TILTED PLANE drives from the ecliptics of Apollonius of Perga in 325 BC. Google it. Or just go to this website: Apollonius of Perga, Encyclopedia Brittanica.

Apllonius investigated the geometry called "conics" and the ellipses that are formed by taken plane slices thru cones. This is the mathematics used by Rick Hamilton when he formed the shape of the Putting Arc, and you are apparently ignorant of this, but Rick NAMES Apollonius as the geometry source for the Putting Arc design. The Putting Arc design is based upon a stroke on a tilted circular plane and the tilt angle is 14 degrees, an angle just pulled out of the air by Rick, according to what he reported to me. (This is explained on a STICKER on the Putting Arc with the math of Apollonius defining the curve and showing that the REAL stroke is straight-back and straight-thru on a circular plane, but this fact does not deter the Putting Arc folk from plowing ahead and promoting a stroke that follows the SHADOW of the real stroke.)

The CURVE on the face of the Putting Arc is the SHADOW on the two-dimensional ground of the three-dimensional movement of the sweetspot in the three dimensions of the air straight back and straight thru on the tilted plane. The math of Apollonius gives the points of this curve. A SHADOW in geometry is the PROJECTION vertically down from the thee dimensions of space onto a flat two-dimensional plane, and is what map-makers do to represent the earth on a flat piece of paper. But this SHADOW is in fact a CURVE on the surface, while the REAL MOTION is straight back and straight thru.

This STICKER on the Putting Arc proudly refers to the ancient Greek geometry (still valid today) that was used to DEFINE mathematically the shape of the two-dimensional SHADOW of the circular plane of the putting stroke in the air in three-dimensions. Notice that the circular plane depicted on the right of this sticker is named the "PLANE OF PURE ROTATION" of the actual motion itself:

[linked image]

The CONFUSION the "cult" guys get is not knowing what to say about the putter face. I'm sorry they can't seem to think straight about it, but it's NOT a debate and it doesn't require measurements to speak with perfect factual accuracy about it. It just requires good clear thinking in geometry.

In a TILTED PLANE stroke, the putter face SEEMS to fan open and then closed, but not if you watch the top line of the lofted putter face. If, however, you aim a laser perpendicularly off the lofted putter face, this laser beam gets rolled downward as the putter head rises in the backstroke in a tilted but pendular stroke, and then at the top of the backstroke the aim of the putter face -- having both rolled in a delofting way while also rising and coming in closer -- does not aim the same as or parallel to the intersection of the tilted plane and the surface, which was the aim line direction at address, but now aims to the outside of the initial at-adress aim. And on the other side at the top of the follow-thru, this laser has been rolled up with added loft while also coming in closer, and the laser now aims to the inside of the at-address line. Son in THAT sense the putter face AIM fans open and closed, but the putter face itself DOES NOT. The line on top of the putter face stays everywhere perpendicular to the plane of motion and to the intersection line between the tilted plane and the surface.

This CONFUSION is built into the Putting Arc and is MIS-LEADING. On the Putting Arc, the people who made this thing drew lines to show HOW MUCH they said the putter face opens in the backstroke and open in the follow-thru. The CURVE of the Putting Arc is a VERTICAL BULGE about 3 inches high, and the horizontal extent of the bulge outward is determined by the geometry of Appollonius of Perga, by whatever size pendulum is swinging on whatever TILT. But a VERTICAL BULGE is a three-dimensional shape, while the CURVE of the Putting Arc is merely aTWO-DIMENSIONAL "projection" of the real 3-D stroke in the air. So by transforming the SHADOW curve on the ground into a VERTICAL BULGE, the Putting Arc makers have confused the real stroke with the shadow of the real stroke. The VERTICAL BULGE is not only an illusion, and not the correct motion that creates the SHADOW, but it is positively MISLEADING as it PURPORTS to be a REAL three-dimensional motion.

Here is the VERTICAL BULGE of the Putting Arc:

[linked image]

Notice that in this second figure, the ANGLE at the neck represents the angle that the circular plane is TILTED out of vertical, so the neck line is UP from HORIZONTAL compared to the line out from the golfer on the ground by 14 degrees:

[linked image]

Here is the circular PLANE that the putter moves on from which the SHADOW curve on the ground is calculated in the design of the Putting Arc:

[linked image]

At 14 degrees and a standard length putter, the Putting Arc can have only the very shape it has. But the putter face does NOT open and close with this bulge when the motion in the air is examined. That's not accurate. How that CONFUSION about the 3-D motion gets there is from how the Putting Arc assumes the HEEL of the putter has a PLANE that stays FLUSH to the curving surface of the VERTICAL BULGE Putting Arc. Well, there IS no curved (bulging) surface to follow in the REAL STROKE -- the stroke is planar and actually representing this planar stroke as moving a putter heel on a tilted plank would show the heel remains everywhere perpendicular to the plane of motion without any fanning open or closed. And besides, all putter heels don't necessarily have PLANAR BUTTS either.

The way a ROBOT MOTION follows the Putting Arc is by making a straight back and straight thru motion on a plane that is tilted off vertical exactly 14 degrees. The setting of the ROBOT "Iron Archie" is done by angling the NECK POLE of the ROBOT up from horizontal and parallel to the surface / floor by exactly 14 degrees and then slipping the arms-hands-putter assembly onto this fixed POLE thru a columnar hole in the neck assembly. Then all the angles are tightened to death and the ROBOT arm assembly is tipped back and forth with a motor. The ONLY POSSIBLE motion is a straight back and straight thru motion on the TILTED PLANE that is 14 degrees back from vertical. In particular, the ROBOT CANNOT articulate with gearing in such a way to KEEP the putter HEEL flush to any VERTICAL SURFACE OF A CURVED BULGE. When Iron Archie traces the Putting Arc, the putter face does NOT open or close with the BULGE, but stays dead square to a line across the far ends of this vertical bulge, at the top of the backstroke at the right end of the bulge straight across the to the top of the follow-thru at the far left end of the bulge. No putter face changes.

So what exactly is the motion that KEEPS the flat plane of the heel matching the VERTICAL BULGE of the Putting Arc? The answer is "the golfer changes the angles of the arms and hands or else rotates the chest or some weird combination." But it is NOT POSSIBLE to have a fixed-shape stroke that traces the Putting Arc without this weirdness in the stroke.

So you folks need to examine the confusion you are spreading about the ARCING stoke and how it is done, and about the TILTED PLNE stroke and whether it has putter face opening and closing. Not only is the arcing stroke UNsimple and COMPLEX and VARIABLE, it causes putts off line by making ball position and setup and stroke motion and stroke timing all too critical for exact repetition. That's why Stan Utley LOST HIS STROKE every year, and every tear traveled to see Rob Akins to have Rob re-build his ball position and setup and stroke motion and stroke timing. Ask him, as Stan is the one reporting this.

Nor is the TILTED PLANE stroke "natural" or "superior" to a vertical-plane thru stroke. The tilted-plane stroke may not have the weirdness in the manipulation of the putter face according to a bogus notion of the movement, but it does have the criticality of ball position and setup and stroke motion and stroke timing, since there is only one precise location where the aim of the putter face is aligned with the at-address aim.

Finally, just for clarification, the PuttingZone teaches how the body makes a straight-back and straight-thru stroke with a shoulder stroke and also with an arms stroke, but fundamentally teaches a "straight thru" stroke. The only stroke that matters is the one headed towards the target, and the backstroke is irrelevant except to the the extent a bad backstroke makes the thru-stroke more difficult. The supposed requirement that the back and thru strokes are "naturally" symmetrical or are supposed to be symmetrical is just another urban myth.

So, if you are in the "arcing cult" and just won't accept the fact that the arcing stroke is a complex movement that is not natural or as efficacious of other patterns, please stop talking nonsense. Figure it out or stop spreading confusion.

Cheers!

[linked image]

Geoff Mangum
Putting Coach and Theorist

PuttingZone.com -- over 200 Certified PuttingZone Coaches teaching in 21 Countries Worldwide and growing strong!
The best putting instruction in the history of the game -- integrating the Four Skills of putting (reading, aiming, stroking for line, and stroking for delivery pace) by combining all putting lore in history with modern science for physics, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor sports teaching and learning and performance, and especially the NEW brain science of the non-conscious processes of perception and movement action in putting skill.


    
This message has been edited by aceputt from IP address 71.54.49.31 on May 10, 2015 1:11 PM


 
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