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Though it discusses steady state galaxies as, if I read it correctly, a perpetual motion machine conserving both mass and energy, though if additional mass arrives from outside of the galaxy in question, and thus upsets the balance, I am unclear as to how that influences the steady state galaxy.
"Scientists can't measure what happens to a photon over a period of a minute, let alone what happens to to it over a period of a billion years. Based on current knowledge, there is no way scientists can state with absolute certainty that photons do not lose energy over time."
I was unaware that this was a matter of disupte, but I don't watch this debate every day.