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Dukljanin
(Login Diocleano)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 13 2006, 7:35 PM 

Religion is religion, but ethnicity, us you now, is smoething else.
Serb church is very spoiled and say to every person who came in serb church: "You are Serb"!
You have manu, many dokuments about Montenegro here
http://www.montenegrocult.com/

 
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G_r_i_f_o_n
(Login G_r_i_f_o_n)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 24 2006, 8:18 PM 

To Pavle Tepavcevic:

Well... These folks here on this forum seek to emphasize that you're not a Serb, but a Montenegrian.
The reason for such behaviour is obvious even from the nickname of one of them ('Dukljanin' - which is from Diocletianin - from the Roman Emperor Diocletian).
You see, ever since the begining of the history we know Romans (the aristocratic families (organised individuals), not people) were spreading their hegemony over nations - explating them, killing them, torturing; there is that well known Roman proverb "DIVIDE ET IMPERA" (Divide and rule) - well, all this cr** that was happening in our lands is exacly that. You saw basicaly one people (the language is same) fighting eachother - widening the gap between them for interests of other hegemonies.

When you someone says Christianity most people immediately think of some oldish dogmatic religion things.
In fact Christianity is a social movement (named by Christ - a dissident in Roman state who was prosecuted and arrested by roman forces of order, then tortured and finaly brutally killed by Romans).
Ever since Christ (as a person like you, me, anybody) was born he was a problem for Rome. Romans were brutal killers - they were going all around enslaving people; those who opposed it were killed either in a conflict or after on crosses (in movies you usualy see deserts and how Christ was crussified, but imagine grass fields in these "European" lands - forests of crosses with all sorts of insubordinant peoples).
It is clear what is the point - some number of aristocratic families want to live comfy lives without work - so they must enforce others to work for them - the solution is clear: always have better weapons than the unsuspecting victim (basicaly the same as now (weaponery evolved from simple spear and sword and some armour and shield to cruiser missiles (even with nuclear war heads), tanks, submarines etc.)).

Why was Christ such a great problem in Rome (in that province Rome conquered)? Well - there was a prophecy that someone (like Moses before) will come and lead people to freedom. Rome didn't like that (because - who would work for their perverted orgy a**es then?).

Christ was a problem because he was putting an idea of democracy into people's heads. (the western definition of the term 'democracy' is intentionaly wrong mind you; it tries to warp the truth about it - they give the false definition (which is actualy a definition of majoritism) insted of a real definition (which is actualy the ANTONYM OF HEGEMONY - simply the rule of every people over themselves instead of bloody Rome rulling them all in their hegemony that was built on bones of the people they enslaved and made fear)). Same thing is happening all over again...

You see, christianity tried to convert Rome from hegemony to democracy, but it finaly failed in 11th century with proclamation of Roman Catholic domain (they just sarkasticaly kept the symbol of cross as the typical symbol of their hegemonial terror - only it became official then).

---------------------

What does it have to do with Montenegrians, Serbs, Croats and Bosnians? Well... Look at what happened.
We are one people, and it is true that every part of that one people is madeup of different etnicities - but no matter how much of different elements took part in that strange mixture of people - that people is ONE - the language is obviously one (in every language there are dialects... nothing new...) - so no matter what all people were mixed in thet ONE the mixture itself (as is) defines a singularity (one 'demos' in what should be 'democracy').

However they broke us up into tiny pieces - along the hegemonial lines:
(1) - the part of that one people called 'Croats' (Slav transl.: 'Hrvati') are that part of this one people (generally Slav group of people) which is mastered by hegemony of Latin group of people (Rome (Roman Catholic hegemony)).

(2) - the part of that one people called 'Bosnians' (Slav transl.: 'Bosanci/Bosnjaci') are that part of this one people (generally Slav group of people) which is mastered by hegemony Arab group of people (islam).

(3) - the part of that one people called 'Serbs' ('Srbi') are that part of this one people (generally Slav group of people) which seeks the ideals of Christianity - which is democracy - freedom from all hegemonies (and Christianity implies freedom from Rome at first (as Christ (the disident of Rome) was killed by Roman forces of order because he was fighting for freedom of his people brutally rulled by Romans - and thus became a symbol for all enslaved peoples along with the Roman hegemonial torture device he was killed on (the cross))). Serbs seek democracy against Rome (and other hegemonies) - the selfrule of people (so it means - no Otoman empire, no Roman Catholic hegemony, no EU etc etc) - and for that they are seen guilty by Roman hegemony (U.S. today is a part of that hegemony, forcing the false maning of the term democracy, and overall forcing everything (first they support individuals who provoke to violence by Serbs so that violence could be taken as an excuse against democracy and Christianity of this people)). If you look at symbology and allusions you will notice that senat is the form of rule in U.S. (as in Rome), you will also see that that same country was helping Nazi states after WW2 to regain power, you will see that Britain (a monarchy!) was supporting a communist(?!?) with weapons (Josip Broz Tito (a Roman catholic, half Slovenian half Austrian (so Serbo-Croatian isn't his mother tongue at all), who fought in WW1 for Austria (originally written 'Oster Reich' - the Eastern Reich) and achieved higher ranks, who joined comunist party when it was supporting separatism in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia)) to win the war and rule Serbs - banish them from Kosovo and supress Christianity of this people. Also bear in mind that islam wouldn't be here if templars (the Roman legions) didn't provoke Islam by killing and robbing their people (whom they brought to Israel (then renamed randomly to 'Palestinium' by Romans) previously to malice the jews). Also bear in mind that Teutonians (Germans) were constantly making troubles in Slav lands not enslaved by islam Rome brought on so-called "Balkans" to do the dirty work for them and crush christianity if they don't submit to Roman rule (a typical blackmail). Finaly we have the new Roman State - the so called "European Union" which makes threats that it is not possible to have higher living standards out of its hegemonial bounderies (by the way if you pay a bit of atention to the world map - geologicaly there is no continent called 'Europe' (this is Asian continental whole), 'Europe' is a political term first used by Greeks who took it from some other language, which roughly means "the region where sun sets" (west) - so it's western from Greece (the amputation of a part of Christian body by Rome is along that vertical)). We can also see the allusion that the prosecutor of 'troublemakers' in this new Roman state (EU) is named Carla del PONTE which is an obvious allusion to PONTIUS Pilate who prosecuted troublemakers in the old Roman state (the one who arrested, ordered torture and executed Christ). Make no mistake - the only Christianity is Orthodox Christianity. There is that one language Corats, Bosnians, Serbs and Crno-goracs speak.
- Speaking that Slav language and being mastered by Latin hegemony automaticaly means 'Croat';
- Speaking that Slav language and being mastered by Arabian hegemony automaticaly means 'Bosniak';
- Speaking that Slav language and seeking democracy (people-(self)rule) (which is indicated thorough being Orthodox Christian) - democracy of this people which speaks this one lenguage automaticaly means 'Serb' (Orthodox Christian Serb).
There is no more than those three nations. JUST THOSE THREE.

(4) - the part of that one people called 'Montenegrians' (original term produced randomly by Rome in XI century ('Monte Negro' ('Black Mountains'))) (Slav transl.'Crno-gorci') are that part of this one people (generally Slav group of people) that are orthodox Christians also, and are a product of the mixture that is this one people (indicated by language). Those two fact indicate that Crno-goracs are Serbs by definition. However the purpose of Roman invention "Monte Negro" is so that Roman hegemony could to usurp and infiltrate this people and subrue it completely destroying its democracy (that's why western states raised such a spitstorm against Serbs in the past decades (esspecialy when anti-nazi forces weakened, and Germany united, so they ordered provincial Albanian government in Kosovo to provoke Serbs in Kosovo province (which was just a lower-left part of Serbia befor a Roman catholic Tito invented maliciously that it is something more and induced abnormal ovepopulation which brought poverty which was then used as an excuse against Serbs somehow) so Serbian government revise the autonomy (because of Albanians missuse it) which than could be missused as an excuse for Austrians of Croatia presenting themselves falsely as Croats (naive Slav Croats bought it naively) to separate Croatia and so on...)).
...See the facts: these characters here brag that Monte Negro was an independant state througout the history - and I ask - could it be independant during raging of falsely revangeous islam (Otoman empire) when even the greater nations have falled like nothing? Of course it wasn't an independant state - it couldn't be back then without backing of Roman hegemony... so what does it have to do with people of Monte Negro...

----------
Ask yourself this question: how can dispersion of one 'demos' along the hegemonial lines be called 'democraticy'?

It is more than obvious that something stinks there. (and I'm not talking about thousands of human deaths among different nations of this one demos this one Slav people; deaths because of needs of Roman hegemony (and Arabic hegemony), because of heteriot they induced among us)

----

These characters on this forum presenting themselves as 'Montenegrians' (and, mind you, who knows whether it is true or not - because they, with their speaches induce hateriot between parts of this one people the same way Roman/Osterreichan satans of this last "Balkan" war induced it to us all and still do to deepen the gap between broken parts of this singularity)... These characters show signs of nazi racism too. They speak about haplogroups, genetics and races, about Ilirians and Aryans and Slavs... They are a product of this satanic anti-Serb ideology - maybe just naive fools who accepted lies of those anti-christs, maybe more than just that...

They decieve... Look: the name of Croatian leader who made war in federation of South Slavs (1990.) was Tüjmann - it is a German (Austrian (Oster-reichan)) surname, not Slavocroatian (and which language is official in Croatia? Deutsch or that Slav one? So which people are in the essence of Croatia? Austrian or these Slav ones?). And wait! There is more: Süscha, Scheks, Sanader, Schkare, Özsbolt, Kosor... The list goes on... All Austrians... Right after Germany united...
Maybe they seek to revange to Slavs because of destruction of their precious Austrian nazi empire (Hitler was also Austiran remember), but - their greed and Roman evil were responsible for it, not Slavs - why did they occupied Bosnia and seeked to further occupy Serbia? Rome ordered it because they didn't want free Christian states - free after half of milenia of muslim rule - those same muslims Roman legions brought on us to revange against Christianity (and what Rome has to do with Christianity - those are antonyms).

------------
About term 'Slav' - nazi characters on this forum and alike claim that it is from Latin word for Slave, but in actuality it is a Slav word for 'Glory' ('Slava').

These anti-Serbian anti-Slav racist nazi jerks like to talk about races and genetics... Look - there are just cultures. There is something called Slav culural heritage - genetics are not important here - this mixture - it is one people.

This Dukljnin jerk constantly inputs that word Serb come from Latin for Serv (Servant) - Slave; but look - there is a small ethnic group in eastern Germany called Lusatian Serbs - what that Slav people has to do with Latin hegemonial influence??? Dukljnin is a mlicious pro-Roman a**hole... not only that he is not Slavocrnogorac, I even doubt that he is Croat... He is probably Austrian or maybe Albanian; definitely not Slav Crnogorac.

---------

So - there - you understand it all.

 
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Dukljanin
(Login Diocleano)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 25 2006, 7:16 AM 

Duklja was city and area of ilirian tribe DOCLEATI.
Later it was STATE, kingdom.
Look older historical maps.
Imperator Diocletian was from DIOCLEA area.

Grifon is big liar.

 
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Pavle1410
(Login Cetnikpajo)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 25 2006, 7:05 PM 

I am always interested in facts. I know very well where my family is from and I will do my best to pass this great heritage to my children. But I know my family is Serbian( from Crna Gora ). I do not truelly believe that being a Serb from Crna Gora or anywhere else is the Balkan countries is all that different. You just have to generalize what you are. Simply stating that I am Crnogorac and not Serbian is only about half true. Each Serbian group has suttle differences. One is from Bosnia, Serbia, Ruplik of Serbia, Herzegovina, Kosovo and so forth, you get the picture. I am Serbian( generalization). I am Crnogorac, not Serbian( splitting hairs ). I believe all Serbian people need to stay together( and not split hairs) in order to survive all the evils that has been stowed upon us all. Every generation of Serbian people has fought same kind of hatred toward us. Like the Serbian slogan states, SAMO SLOGA SRBINA SPASAVA, only unity saves the Serbs. Futhermore, historically Crna Gora always has done just that. The politically views are different nowadays. Every Serb should be proud of where their family is from and always remember what Crna Gora has done for them......................proud Crnogorac

 
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Dukljanin
(Login Diocleano)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 26 2006, 2:02 AM 

Pripadaju li ova dva èojka istom narodu, istoj kulturi?


(Montenegro)


(Serbia)


    
This message has been edited by Zetaman on Nov 26, 2006 10:28 PM


 
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Pavle1410
(Login Cetnikpajo)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 26 2006, 5:10 AM 

I don't speak much Serbian so I don't understand completly what you are saying. I think you are saying to me "inform these two men with the same kind of thinking in the nation". Please correct me if I am wrong. I am very proud of what my ancestors fought for.

 
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Dukljanin
(Login Diocleano)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 26 2006, 8:05 AM 

This 2 man from the same culture?

Left is Montenegrin, and, on the right is Serb.

 
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Pavle1410
(Login Cetnikpajo)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 26 2006, 4:03 PM 

After studing the pictures, I can come up with one conclusion. Being Crnogorac has a different feel to it than being Serbian. I can really see the point you trying to make. Crna Gora propably has some common roots with Serbia, but have evolved into a different personality. I can see pride in both faces, but the Crnogorac seems to have more of a serious personality. I am glad to be Crnogorac. Veliko vam hvala for showing me the actual difference................Pavle

 
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Dukljanin
(Login Diocleano)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 26 2006, 7:58 PM 

Some people say English, specialy sirs and lords are very cold.
Well ...

Lord Alfred Tennyson: >MONTENEGRO<


Lord Tennyson




 
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Anonymous
(Login Gerasim)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 28 2006, 1:17 AM 

I am sorry to interrupt you, but I must add something here... The guy "Diocleano" basically comes up with some silly facts wanting to tell a man who knows his Serb ancestry up to the 15th century that he has nothing to do with Serbs... Showing the pictures about differences between Montenegrins and Serbians... Well, it is very funny. Even Serbs in Serbia have very differntiated customs and clothing, depending on which influence they have been under... We Serbs from Vojvodina, for example, have very different ethno-clothing to Serbs from Rashka region. So, the arguments you use in your posts are funny. So, Montenegrins and Serbs from south-western Serbia are much more similar to Montenegrins (and Herzegovians) than to Serbs from Bachka, for example... I have nothing against concept of MOntenegrin nation... But the "facts" you use to disprove your Serbian ancestry are just so inappropriate and false... I wonder how people in Montenegro can believe people such as Diocleano... Just spreading hate. Too bad. But I have to say, long live Montenegro!

 
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Pavle1410
(Login Cetnikpajo)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 28 2006, 1:50 AM 

I kind of figured that different costums are from different regions within the same country. It's like you said I know my Serb ancestry all the back to 1330 and I am very proud of it. It is too bad I grew up in America, and being 3rd generation here, where just about all facts are lost. I am always looking for something new to learn about my ancestry. I think I am getting the picture from all the post I read from everybody. I am going to stick with what the facts are. I am Serbian and my family comes from Crna Gora, period!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 
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Anonymous
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 28 2006, 7:21 AM 

THE FACT ARE :
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

YOUR ARE MONTENEGRIN ,NOT SERB !

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November 28 2006, 7:23 AM 

Before the arrival of the Slav peoples in the Balkans during the VI century AD, the area now known as Montenegro was inhabited principally by people known as Illyrians. After several punitive expeditions against local pirates, this kingdom was finally conquered by the Romans in AD 9 and annexed to the province of Illyricum.

The division of the Roman Empire between Roman and Byzantine rules-and subsequently between the Latin and Greek churches-was marked by a line that ran northward from (Shkoder) Skadar through modern Montenegro, symbolizing the status of this region as a perpetual marginal zone between the economic, cultural, and political worlds of the Mediterranean peoples and the Slavs. During the decline of Roman power, this part of the Adriatic coast suffered from intermittent ravages by various semi nomadic invaders, especially the Goths in the late V century and the Avars during the VI century. These were soon supplanted by the Slavs, who became widely established in this part of the Balkan by the middle of the VII century. Because of the extreme raggedness of the terrain and the lack of any major sources of wealth such as mineral riches, the area that is now Montenegro became a haven for residual groups of earlier settlers, including some tribes who had escaped Romanization.

The Slavic colonization of the Balkan peninsula, thus, occurred during VI century and probably finished by the middle of VII century. It is believed that predecessors of Montenegrins came from the region (Polablje) between the Baltic Sea and the present-day city of Hanover, Germany (D.Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, 1989; R.Rotkovic, Odakle su dosli Crnogorci, 1992; V. Nikcevic, Crnogorski Jezik, 1993). However, Montenegrin predecessors, (known as the Velet and Odobritei tribes) did not come from Germany, since the Germans occupied these territories after Montenegrin predecessors had moved to Adriatic (R.Rotkovic, ibid). Dr Rotkovic collected around 800 toponyms in Montenegro, relating to settlements, rivers, lakes and mountains in Polablje.

According to Byzantine tzar Porfirogenit in a paragraph "O Dukljanima i zemlji u kojoj sada obitavaju" he writes that Doclea (Duklja) belonged first to Romans and than to Romeji (Byzantium)

Thus, coming from the north, Slav tribes settled in the Roman province of Prevalis, where they found the urban Roman and native Illyrian tribes. The Slav people were organized along tribal lines, each headed by a chieftain (zupan). The new arrived Slavs, despite animosity and hostility of native inhabitants, learned to live together, forging Slavo-Romanic modus vivendi and accepting Christianity from the local people. Later, within Byzantine Kingdom, they united their tribes under the name of Scklavinia Doclea (Sklavinija Duklja, or Dukljani) (V.Nikcevic, O postanku etnonima Dukljani, Zecani, Crnogorci, 1987).





 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

EDUKATION TOO PAVLE

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November 28 2006, 7:26 AM 

Balsics' Rule (1356-1427)
The most prosperous and mightiest era of Raska's (Serbian) history was brought to an end by the death of mighty but cruel tzar Dusan (1355). Ceasing the opportunity, the leading dynasty in Zeta, the Balsics, reasserted Zeta's independence in the early 1360s.

Balsa I, the founder of the dynasty had three sons: Stracimir, Djuradj and Balsa II. The later two ruled Zeta from 1362 to 1378 and 1378 to 1385, respectively. However, the most influential Balsic is said to had been Djuradj I, who enlarged and consolidated Zeta's renewed power and took Prizren (a town in present-day Kosovo). While he was battling at the south of Kosovo his young brother, Balsa II got married to close cousin of mighty tzar Dusan's wife Jelena. Thus, by marring Komnina, Djuradj II received a generous dowry: Avlona, Berat, Kanina and some additional important regions. Djuradj I coined an alliance with Vukasin Mrnjavcevic (Vardar Valley) but the later soon was killed in the Battle on River Marica (1371)(J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 28).

Djuradj I run Zeta as the modern ruler of the time. Zeta's institutions were functioning well, while the coastal towns enjoyed considerable autonomy. The commerce was well developed and enhanced by the existence of Zeta's currency - the dinar.

Djuradj I allied with his neighbors Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic of Serbia, Ban Tvrtko I of Bosnia, Prince Nikola Gorjanski and King Ludovik I of Ungary, to defeat ambitious Herzegovian ruler Nikola Altomanovic (1373). However, defeated and blinded Nikola Altomanovic found a refuge with Djuradj I until his death.

In a division of the conquered Herzegovina, the Balsics took the towns of Trebinje, Konavle and Dracevica. Subsequent dispute over these towns led to the war between Djuradj I Balsic and Ban Tvrtko that was won eventually by the later but with a support of Ungary (Hungary) and only after Djuradj's death (1378). In 1382, Bosnian Ban Tvrtko I conquered Dracevic (Zupu Dracevicu), and built town later known as Herceg Novi (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). The Ungarians were supporting Ban Tvrtko because he, as well as Prince (knez) Lazar of Serbia recognized Ungarian rule while Balsa II refused to do so. In any case, both Ban Tvrtko and Balsa II had aspirations to be on the throne of the Nemanjic state (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

Djuradj died in 1378, and was succeeded by the third son of Balsa I, Balsa II. Balsa II could not maintain the control of the feudal lords Djuradj I had controlled. His power was felt only in region around Shkoder (Skadar) and in the eastern part of the Zeta's cost. The most prominent feudal lords who did not recognize Balsa's rule were Djurasevic-Crnojevic. They were permanently encouraged by the Venetians' intrigues to rebel against Balsa II.

Balsa II needed four attempt to conquer Drac, an important commercial and strategic center. Defeated Karlo Topi went to Turks for a help. Turkish forces led by Hajrudin pasha inflicted heavy defeat on Balsa's II forces and killed Balsa in a big battle on Saurian field (Saurijsko polje) near Berat, in 1385 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).


The successor of Balsa II, Djuradj II Balsic (1385-1403), Balsa's nephew (son of Stracimir) had enormous difficulties to control the local feudal lords. He did not have any control over the feudal lords in the entire Upper Zeta. In addition, the feudal lords around Onogost (Niksic) accepted the Venetian protection and particularly did so Radic Crnojevic who controlled the area between Budva and Lovcen. Moreover, a number of Arbanas feudal lords, particularly Leka and Pavle Dukadjini joined the conspiration against Djuradj II (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

Having this in mind as well as the constant danger from the Turks, Djuradj II Balsic maintained good family ties with Serbian rulers of the time, Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic. His mother, Milica Mrnjavcevic, was a sister of Prince Vukasin of Serbia, and he married Jelena who was a daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia. In order to help Prince Lazar to defend his state from Turkish invasion, Djuradj II sent his troops with Ban Tvrtko's forces (with whom he had a dispute over Kotor) to meet the Turkish army at Kosovo Polje. Despite Sultan Murat death, the orthodox coalition suffered a defeat in the epic Battle of Kosovo (1389).

In later years Djuradj II played skillful diplomatic games to enhance the rivalry between the Turks and the Venetians. For that purpose he offered Shkoder (Skadar) to both hoping that he will be able to keep it eventually. For two years the Turks and the Venetians fought over Shkoder to leave it eventually to Djuradj II who was neutral in the conflict. Similarly, the rivalry between the Venetians and the Hungarians brought a benefit to Balsa II. After the heavy defeat of his forces in the hands of Venetians near Nikopolje, the Ugarian (Hungarian) King Sigismund gave the title of Prince of Arbania ('Princeps od Arbanije') and chiftainship of Hvar and Korcula to Balsa II (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

In the feud between Turkish vassal Djuradj Brankovic and his uncle Stevan Lazarevic (son of Prince Lazar) who later received the title of Byzantine despot, Djuradj II sided with Stevan. Due to Djuradj's support, Stevan defeated Turkish forces led by Djuradj Brankovic in the battle of Gracanica on Kosovo field (21 June 1402) (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

In 1403, Djuradj II's 17-year old son, Balsa III, inherited the rule of Zeta as his father died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the battle of Gracanica. As he was young and inexperienced his main advisor was his mother Jelena a sister of the ruler of Serbia at the time , Stevan Lazarevic. Under the influence of his mother, Jelena, Balsa III reverted the order of the state religion, passing the law whereby declaring the Christian Orthodox as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became tolerant confession (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

Balsa III continued the politics of his father. In 1418 he conquered Shkoder from Venetians but lost Budva. In the next year (1419) he made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Budva. He went to Belgrade to ask for a help from Stevan Lazarevic but never returned to Zeta. In 1421, before his death and under the influence of his mother Jelena, he passed the rule of Zeta to Stevan Lazarevic. 'Despot' Stevan fought Venetians and regained Bar in the mid of 1423 but in the following year sent his son Djuradj Brankovic regaining Drivast and Ulcinium (Ulcinj) (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 43).

This marked the end of the Balsic dynasty. Between 1421 and 1446, Crna Gora (this Venetian form of the Italian Monte Nero is a translation of the name Crna Gora, "Black Mountain"), as the country was widely known after 1435, was in a state of interregnum; the power struggle embroiled Serbian despot Stevan (Serbia was double vassal; Turkish and Ugarian), Venetia, and Crna Gora/Gornja Zeta (under dynasty of Crnojevic's).





The oldest legislative document of the Zeta state (later Crna Gora-Montenegro) was issued on January 17th 1368. The facsimile here enclosed is a copy of the Additional Decree of Balsa II Balsic issued November 20th 1395.

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

EDUKATION TOO PAVLE

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November 28 2006, 7:27 AM 

Rule
After the Balsic dynasty died out in 1421, the focus of Doclean/Zetian resistance shifted northward to Zabljak (south of Podgorica) in the basin of Shkoder (Skadarsko) Lake. Here, a chieftain named Stefan Crnojevic set up his capital, adding another important chapter to the turbulent history of Montenegro.

Like its predecessors Balsics, Crnojevics entered historical scene while Montenegro was suffering from a political turmoil and was threatened to be divided among neighbouring conquerors - Turks, Venetians, and Serbian despots united with the Turks.

More precisely, Djurasevic family returned to its previous family name, Crnojevic, and entered political scene during the time of Balsa III. They helped Balsa III during Shkoder's Wars (1411-1413 and 1419-1421). Since Balsa III handed Zeta to his father in law Stefan Lazarevic, Crnojevics formally recognised the rule of Stefan Lazarevic in Zeta (1421-1427). However, after the death of the Serbian despot Stefan Lazarevic, Zeta was inherited by his nephew the Serbian despot Djuradj Brankovic who, at the time, needed to pacify his greatest enemy, the Ottomans and could not pay particular attention to Zeta. So grave the Serbia's position was, that despot Djuradj had to accept to pay yearly tax of 50 000 Ducats to Turks, as well as to send his beloved daughter Mara to Harem and make available 20 000 soldiers whenever Sultan needed them.

Capitalising on the weak position of despot Djuradj, both Venetians and Herzegovian despot Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca, conquered parts of Djuradj's territory. Since Kosaca was a Turkish vassal, Stefan Crnojevic, who had already established himself as the head of Crnojevic dynasty (around 1435) in Upper Zeta/Montenegro (as this territory was known after this date), was forced to make territorial concessions. In addition Kasaca took Stefan's son Ivan as a hostage hoping that this will force Stefan to be on his side when need be.

In order to strengthen his power Stefan Crnojevic married Mara, the oldest daughter of a respected Albanian lord, Ivan Kastriot. This marriage became particularly important after Djerdj, a son of Ivan Kastriot, allied with Ungarian army to defeat Murat II, and cut ties with Turkey, making himself the legendary leader (Skender-beg) of Albanian liberation movement. More importantly, threatened by the Serbian despots and their Turkish allies on one hand, and lured by the promise of his son's Ivan liberation from Kosaca's captivity on the other, Stefan Crnojevic forged an alliance with Venice. After years of negotiations Stefan finally agreed to ratify the agreement (06.09.1455), according to which he was to be recognised as the undisputed leader in Zeta who would rule on behalf of Venice, and be awarded the titles of Captain and Duke in addition to an annual fee of 500 Ducats. On his part, Stefan undertook to make available military capacity to Venice for two months a year on his expense.

This agreement is characterised not as recognition of Venetian sovereignty over Montenegro but rather as a military pact, which allowed Stefan to move majority of his forces from the borders with Venice toward Herzegovian and South-eastern borders. The majority of Turkish attacks and intrusions were coming from the fortress of Medun, which was given to Turks by Milos, a Duke of Djuradj Brankovic in 1456, after three successive defeats in the hands of Stefan Crnojevic.

The territory over which Stefan Crnojevic had sovereignty, apart from mountainous area under mount Lovcen and Cetinje, comprised 51 municipalities. It included Rijeku Crnojevica, Zeta's plain, Bjelopavlici, Pjesivci, Malonsici, Piperi, Hoti, Klimenti, and other "clans" (municipalities) with 3500 households and the population of around 30 000 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, 1989, p. 341). Total population of Zeta/Montenegro including regions under the Venetian, Kosaca's and Turkish rule, was about 80 000 (ibid).

While defending his country against Turks, Stefan Crnojevic managed to stabilize it internally, establishing a new socio-political basis, creating a new flag as the state symbol, and making solid foundations for his dynasty. Stefan Crnojevic, thus, laid the foundations for the future post-feudal atypical state, that remains a state for itself, unusual and unrepeatable. The meaning and purpose of its existence was the freedom for which its people were ready to give everything including their lives. Montenegro as it was called thereafter, became among fellow Slavs the symbol of freedom, liberation, and unconquered fortress that even defied the mighty Ottoman Empire.

Stefan Crnojevic was succeeded by his son Ivan, who ruled Montenegro from 1465 to 1490. Immediately after taking a rule, Ivan attacked Venetians braking the alliance his father had forged. However, after an initial success Ivan realised that the major danger for his country is represented in Ottoman Empire, so that he re-established the alliance with Venice. Ivan fought numerous battles against Turks. He took part in defending Shkoder (Skadar), where the Venetian defenders fought off forces of Turkish Sultan Mehmed II and eventually won the war in 1474. However, this victory was not to be long lasted, since Sultan forces conqured Shkoder in 1479 and signed a peace treaty with Venice unfavourable for the later. Knowing that the Turks will try to punish Ivan for his part in the war on the Venetian side, Ivan moved his capital Zabljak from the basin of Shkoder (Skadarsko) Lake to Dolac under mount Lovcen. In 1482 Ivan built his court in Dolac (Cetinje) inspired by other European feudal courts. Apart from his modern palace, Ivan built a monastery (1484) which became the residency of Montenegrin Metropolitans (1485) and the see of a bishopric. Cetinje, thus became the capital of Montenegro (Podlovcenska Crna Gora) from which Ivan organised the defence of his country. He was dreaming to organise an anti Turkish alliance comprised of Napolitan, Venetian, Ungarian and his forces. However his dream could not be fulfilled since the Venetians did not dare to give help to Ivan after the peace treaty with Turkey forged in 1479. Left on his own, Ivan single-handedly managed to preserve sovereignty of Montenegro from frequent Turkish attacks and offensives.

During Ivan life the rule of Montenegro was passed to his oldest son Djuradj while his youngest son Stanisa, disillusioned with the impossibility to succeed his father went to Istanbul and converted to Islam. As a loyal servant of Sultan, Stanisa later became the Shkodrian 'sandzak-beg' under the name of Skender. His brothers Djuradj and Stefan continued the struggle against Ottomans. The historical facts are unclear and disputed, but it seems that Venetians, frustrated by their own inability to subdue Crnojevics to their own interests, managed to kill Stefan and deceitfully sent Djuradj to Istanbul. Namely Djuradj visited Venice in order to work on the "wide anti Turkish campaign" but was kept in captivity for some time while his brother Stefan was defending his country against Turkish forces. It is likely that on his returned to Montenegro, Djuradj was kidnapped by the Venetian agents and sent to Istanbul via Shkoder under accusation that he had been organising a Holly War against Islam. There are some unreliable claims that Djuradj was given to rule Anadolia but in any case the reports about Djuradj life ceased after 1503 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

As noted by the Montenegrin historian D. Zivkovic (1989, p.367), even though we can not be sure how Crnojevics ended their lives, we can say with certainty that Djuradj and his brother Stefan left the Montenegrin throne forever in 1496 and 1498 respectfully. The end of 15 century thus signifies the end of the rule of famous Crnojevics dynasty in Montenegro. That does not mean that Montenegro (Podlovcenska Crna Gora), in contrast to other Balkan countries, lost its factual sovereignty, freedom and independence. On the contrary; Montenegrin State strengthened on different socio-economic foundations, became the lighthouse of freedom for all Balkan countries as envisaged by Stefan Crnojevic, the founder of Crnojevic dynasty.

The Religious and Cultural Heritage of Balsics' and Crnojevics'

The frequent change of borders of the state of Zeta, later called Montenegro (from Venetian form of Monte Nero), predictably had an impact on the religious confessions of the local population. Some historians claim, that until the end of 14 century Catholic ideology embodied in the offensive religious and cultural policies in the coastal regions of Zeta under Venetian rule, made Catholicism to be dominant religion in this region pushing Orthodox Christendom inward toward continental Zeta (D. Zivkovic, 1989, p.377). Thus, limiting it on the small area under the mount Lovcen where eventualy, it was brought under jurisdiction of Cetinje diocese. The proclamation of Orthodox Christendom as a state religion by Balsa III, did not help much the Orthodox population in the regions under Venetian rule. This part of population was systematically converted to Catholicism or Uniatism. Religious policies of various serbian despots, Balsa III and later Crnojevics paved the way for the mono-confessionalism of population within the borders of Montenegrin state. A Montegrin historian, D. Zivkovic (1989, p.377), suggested that the part of Zetian/Montenegrin Orthodox population, determined to preserve its faith moved to the unoccupied territory ruled by Crnojevics. Furthermore, according to Zivkovic (1989, p. 377) the population under "Crnojevic political ingerence" since time of Ivan Crnojevic and thereafter, has belonged to the Orthodox confession.

The religious background of Zetian State under Balsa III and his mother Helen, and their followers dynasty Crnojevics, helps understand their cultural aspiration of the time. Among the most important literal works of that time is 'Gorica's Almanac' (Goricki zbornik). The writing of this work (1441-1442) was sponsored by Balsa's mother Helen who, after the death of her second husband, Sandalj Hranic Kosaca (1435), decided to spend the end of her life in a monastery. Goricki zbornik is synthesis of Byzantine theological doctrine and, like other writings of the time in this region, was written in old church-Slavic language of Zetian/Montenegrin edition.

An important work of church-legal literature is a translation of 'Syntagm' (1380) by Matija Vlastar. By its spirit and letter, the Vlastar's Syntagm glorified the Greek-eastern position of Cezar-Popeism. The doctrine presented in the Valtazar's Syntagm was embraced by Stefan Crnojevic in his struggle against Serbian despot Djuradj Brankovic. Stefan found in the Syntagm international legal dimension where was claimed that "it is a natural right that every nation (people) has a legitimacy of her own within countries of Eastern Orthodox hemisphere".

A considerable part of cultural legacy of the Balsics' and Crnojevics' epochs could be found in the numerous religious books of Greek Eastern provenience. The most important among them are listed below. Their titles and location, where known, are written as known in Montenegro, without translation, since most of them have not been published yet.

'Vranjinsko cetvorojevandjelje' (1436) - Odessa private collection.
'Praksapostol' (1441/42) (The Epistles of Apostles) - disappeared in the Serbian National Library in 1941 destruction.
'Triod Moracki' (1444) National Library, Berlin.
'Sabornik cetirem mjesecem' (1484/84) - University Library, Torino.
'Caslovac' by Nikola Kosijer (1484).
'Cetinjski psaltir' (first half of XV century) - University of Zagreb.
In several monasteries in Montenegro there is a number of important old books and writings. Most of these books could be found in the monastery Nikoljac in Podvrh near Bijelo Polje, Monastery St. Trinity near Pljevlja, and Monastery of Cetinje.
The written religious legacy from XVI and XV centuries, although neither well preserved nor researched sufficiently, proves that the literature was developed in Zeta/Montenegro during the Balsic' and Crnojevics' epoches. Thus, Zetian/Montenegrin cultural environment, from early Doclean period to Balsics' and Crnojevics' phase, had a continuity of cultural development that was not discontinued even when it was under foreign (Raskian) supremacy. Given that on this territory were written famous works as 'The Pontificate of Bishopric of Kotor' (end of XI or beg. of XII cent.), 'Kingdom of Slavs' also known as 'Regnum Sclavorum' and sometimes called 'Chronicle of Father Doclean' written by an unknown Doclean Benedictine priest, as well as 'Miroslav's Gospel' from the end of XII century, it is no surprise that here was founded the Crnojevics' print shop as the highest expression of the earlier cultural stratum.

The First Montenegrin Print Shop

The Crnojevics' print-shop was the first in Southestearn Europe and the first among the South Slavs. The print-shop had enormous role in the diffusion of books and literacy, as well as in spreading the culture well beyond the local area. It is believed that the print press was brought in Montenegro from Venice between 1476 and 1478 by Ivan Crnojevic, the most educated Montenegrin at the time. The press could not be installed to operate before 1485, when Cetinje Monastery was erected, because Crnojevic were preoccupied with the wars against Ottomans in which former lost control of the Capital Zabljak (1478) in the basin of Shkoder Lake. Historians believe that subsequent seven years, after installation of the print shop in Cetinje Monastery, were used to train the printing staff led by famous monk Makarije. The first book printed on the Obod press by Makarije was the Orthodox service book, the 'Octoechos' (Oktoih), which is the first printed Cyrillic book of the South Slavs (January 1494). In the Orthodox Church, the Oktoih is a book of liturgical hymns, intended to be sung in eight parts. Cyrillic incunabulas 'Oktoih Prvoglasnik', 'Oktoih Petoglasnik', 'Psaltir', 'Trebnik', and 'Cvetni Triod' printed in Cetinje between 1493 and 1496 during the rule of Djurdj Crnojevic represent the most impressive examples of the culture of the times.

 
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November 28 2006, 7:28 AM 




















The Regions (Nahije) of Old Montenegro
The Old Montenegro (Stara Crna Gora) comprised Katunska (the bigest), Rijecka (the richest), Crmnicka, and Ljesanska nahija. Some authors (M.Bolica, Turkish defters, Vladika Vasilije) also include Pjesivce and sometimes other nahijas but this classifications faded away eventually.

Katunska nahija has nine clans (tribes): Cetinje, Njegusi, Ceklici, Bjelice, Cuce (Velje i Male), Ozrinice (Cevljani), Pjesivci (Gornji i Donji),Zagarac (Gornji i Donji), and Komani (Komani, in a narrow sense Bandici).

Rijecka nahija has five clans (tribes): Ceklin (Gornji i Donji), Ljubotinj (Gornji i Donji), Gradjani, Dobrsko Selo, and Kosijeri.

Ljesanska nahija in an unfinished grouping of clans (tribes) has following clans: Drazevina, Gradac, Buronje.

Crmnicka nahija is divided on: Podgor, Dupilo, Brcele, Gluhi Do, Sotonice, Limljani and Boljevice.

Source: Djoko Pejovic, Crna Gora u doba Petra I i Petra II, Beograd, 1981, p.14.

Guvernadur Radonjic in 1711 wrote to Maria Teresia, that Montenegro is divided in five regions (nahija-Pjesivci included). They are governed by 5 Grand Dukes (serdari), 9 Dukes (vojvoda), and 34 Princes (kneza). Furthermore he suggested that Serdars have very important role and should be paid twice as much as Vojvodas (Zapisi, 1939, Cetinje).


 
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November 28 2006, 7:29 AM 

Montenegro under the Vladikas' (Prince-Bishops) (1516-1697)
After the death of Djuradj Crnojevic, Zeta/Crna Gora was ruled by his brother Stefan, who was a Turkish vassal. In the new administrative division of Balkan, Montenegro was a part of the Skadarski Sandzakat(1499-1514). During this period, while Brda and North-West of Montenegro were nominally independent, the part of Montenegro under the mountain Lovcen (Podlovcenska Crna Gora) remained entirely independent (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). By the end of XV century Upper Zeta comprised Katunska, Rijecka, Crmnicka, and Ljesanska nahias, and the name of Crna Gora (Montenegro) was widely in use. The borders of Montenegro at the beginning of XVI century were as follows:

South-mountain Sutorman, hills between Crmnica and Pastrovici, than, Pastrovici, Majina, Brajici, and Pobora to the Adriatic sea near Grbalj;

West-from the Walls of Kotor town, above Dobrota, Ljuta, Orahovac, Drazevina, Perast, Risan and Ledenica;

North-over river Sitnica, than between Grahovo and Cuce and towards Pusti Lisac:

East-mountain Lastva, Garac, than hills over Susica, than below Komani to Ljeskopolje, than above Zabljak and Dodosi, and over the Lake of Shkodra (Skadarsko) to Sutorman (J.Jovanovic,1948, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, 1948, Cetinje, p. 60-61).

In 1514, Montenegro was proclaimed as the separate Crnogorski sandzaktat, by order of Sultan Bajazit II. For the first Sandzak-beg was chosen Ivan Crnojevic's son Skenderbeg, who was a convert to Islam, and governed until 1528. Despite Skenderbeg's emphasized cruelty, Turks did not have real power in Montenegro. The real power was in the hands of tribal (plemenskih) heads. From 1534 onwards, there is no more mentioning of Crnojevics in Crna Gora(J.Jovanovic,1948, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, 1948, Cetinje, p. 54-55).

The year 1516 saw a shift in the constitution of Montenegro that many historians regard as having ensured its survival as an independent state. The last of the Crnojevic dynasty retired to Venice (he had married a Venetian) and conferred the succession upon the bishops of Cetinje. In Montenegro the position of vladika, as the prince-bishop was known, brought stability to that country's leadership. The link between church and state elevated it in the eyes of the peasantry, gave it an institutionalized form of succession that prevented its becoming a matter of contest between minor chieftains, and excluded the possibility of compromising alliances with the Turks.

In this period, vladikas came from different families and were elected by popular assemblies. According to St.Petar Cetinjski "The Vladika is an exemplary Montenegrin, as were the first Vladikas, and he cannot be but a born Montenegrin from one of the best Montenegrin families. A renown writer of a history of Montenegro noted: "The Vladikas were true spiritual and popular leaders of the Montenegrin people. The Vladika was a guardian of the people's spiritual strength and self-awareness, based on faith and the tradition of heroism and glorious ancestors...the Vladikas governed not by brute force but by purely moral influence, persuasion and prayers. And they all recognized the supreme authority of the Faith and the Church in which the Vladikas and the people were one. It was a special kind of spiritual brotherhood " (Rovinski, Crna Gora u proslosti i sadasnjosti, 1989, Cetinje, 352-3).

The institution of the theocratic sovereign and the individuals who occupied it through the centuries were key to Montenegro's independence, the Montenegrin national identity and unity, against the backdrop of tribal divisions. Surrounded by the Ottoman empire, nestled in the highlands around the Mount Lovcen, Montenegro kept its sovereignty through the leadership of the vladikas.

Therefore, diocese of Cetinje, having overcome the phase of a passive onlooker, took active, and even leading political role in the fight for liberation against Turks. At the beginning of XVII century, Montenegrins fought and won two important battles against Turks on Ljeskopolje (1603 and 1613), under the leadership and command of Cetinje's metropolitan, Rufim II Njegus (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). This was the first time that the Turks were defeated under the leadership of a Cetinje's vladika, and that became tradition thereafter. At the same time this signify the beginning of the factual autocephalic activity of Montenegrin Orthodox Church, institutionalized in the diocese of Cetinje (D. Zivkovic, ibid.).

During XVII century, Montenegrins gained on confidence fighting the mightiest army of the time. Turkish forces suffered many defeats in the hands of Montenegrins who not only kept their independence but progressively reasserted their sovereignty over neighboring territories.

Nevertheless, this period was a difficult one for the small, landlocked Montenegrin state, which was almost constantly at war with the Ottoman Empire. Cetinje itself was captured in 1623, in 1687, and again in 1712. Three factors explain the failure of the Turks to subdue it completely:

the obdurate resistance of the population,
the inhospitable character of the terrain (in which a cynic may say that "a small army is beaten, a large one dies of starvation"), and
the adept use of diplomatic ties with Venice.
From 1519 until 1696 the position of vladika was an elective one, but in the latter year Danilo Petrovic was elected to the position (as Danilo I) with the significant novelty of being able to nominate his own successor. Although Orthodox clergy in general are permitted to marry, bishops are required to be celibate; consequently, Danilo passed his office to his nephew-founding a tradition that lasted until 1852.
During the reign of Danilo two important changes occurred in the wider European context of Montenegro: the expansion of the Ottoman state was gradually reversed, and Montenegro found in Russia a powerful new patron to replace the declining Venice. The replacement of Venice by Russian patronage was especially significant, since it brought financial aid (after Danilo visited Peter the Great in 1715), modest territorial gain, and, in 1789, formal recognition by the Ottoman Porte of Montenegro's independence as a state under Petar Petrovic Njegos (Peter I).

The ebbing of the Ottoman tide proved significant for Montenegrin religious identity, which appears to have been particularly unstable throughout the 18th century. In order to preserve their own identity and enforce the established theocratic, Orthodox state, Montenegrins organized the legendary mass slaughter of those who had converted to Islam on Christmas Eve 1709 (the "Montenegrin Vespers''). The decline of Turkish power help Montenegrins to gradually stabilize and eventually strengthen Montenegro's Orthodox identity. Catholicism retained a toehold in the area, and only recently have Catholics identified themselves as Croats.

The vladika's rule in this mountanious principality, which lasted until the middle of 18th century, when secular Western ideas intruded, is described in the literature as Europe's closest approximation to Tibet: a theocracy, ruled by celibate orthodox prince bishops selected from the boys of the Njegusi tribe, who lived in the stony valleys south of Cetinje

 
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November 28 2006, 7:31 AM 




















Unification of Montenegro and Serbia (1918) - Podgorica's Assembly
Unification of Montenegro and Serbia is the one of the most interesting and most important issues of contemporary Montenegrin history. The entire contemporary history evolved in the shadows of this problem. Despite the existence of various political parties, the main political division in Montenegro between the two wars, end to the extent nowadays, is whites (bjelasi) and greens (zelenasi) (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd, p.11). The manifestations associated with these two ideologies are, on one hand, manifestation of nationalism, localism, and chauvinism, (zelenasi), and on the other hand the phenomenon of national nihilism (bjelasi)(D.Vujovic, Ujedinjenje Crne Gore i Srbije, Istorijski institut NRCG, 1962, p. 8). It may be agued however, that this definition threat the greens or neo-greens somewhat harshly (See letters 1 and 2).

During the WW1 the unification of Montenegro and Serbia was the primary task of supporters of Greater Serbia project, led by Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pasic. Pasic's aim was to just annex Montenegro without much public discussion and eventual negotiations. For that reason the Serbian government, and Pasic personally, formed the 'movement for unification' and embarked on a campaign (1916 and 1917), that was to show necessity and inevitability of unification. This became the official Serbian strategic policy approved by the Serbian government and Regent Alexander (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd, p.13).

Although 'movement for unification 'was under the Pasic's influence, following the Montenegrins' long lasted wish for the integration of South Slavs, it proposed that, "...Montenegro unifies with Serbia and other Yugoslav states". However, in order to insure his objective of Greater Serbia, Pasic was so meticulous, that he reformulated the proposal, dismissing any use of the word Yugoslavia or Yugoslavs (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd, p.13).

The preparations for a formal unification (Podgorica's Assembly) were very short. The supporters of unification chose most of the delegates for Podgorica Assembly (Podgoricka Skupstina) on their own meetings, but where meeting were not held, the delegates were simply named and invited by the organizer of the Podgorica's Assembly (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd, p.14).

Podgorica's Assembly took place in the Tobacco monopoly building on 11.11.1918. Some delegates demanded that, instead of rushing to unite, Montenegro was restored as sovereign country and than to negotiate the question of unity with the Serbian government. In order to prevent discussion "which would not lead to anything good and useful for the main thing which must be done urgently", the presidency of the Assembly assured that one detachment of army encircled the Assembly building and make pressure on hesitant delegates (J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske nacije, 1948, Cetinje, p.436).

Podgorica's Assembly, on its session of 13.11.1918, "unanimously" and "by acclamation" decided the following:

that King Nicholas I and his dynasty be dethroned for ever from Montenegrin throne;
that Montenegro unconditionally unite with Serbia in one state under dynasty of Karadjordjevic and so united "enter in mutual homeland our three-named people Serbs, Croats and Slovenes",
and that these Assembly's decisions to be told to: ex King Nicholas I and his sons, Serbian and allied governments, as well as all neutral states (translated from J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske nacije, 1947, Cetinje, p.436).
Dissatisfaction with Podgorica's Assembly spread quickly all over Montenegro, but it was particularly prominent in what was called 'Old Montenegro'. Even the people who were in favor of unification of what they called "Serb people into a single Serb state" were dismayed at the way the unification proceeded, at the way Montenegrins were treated, and above all with the ill behavior of Serbian troops that once had been warmly welcomed as the 'allied and brotherly forces'(ibid.).
Being so dismayed and disillusioned with Serbian Government and Serbian forces, many thousands of Montenegrins, took up arms (on Christmas eve of 1919) and surrounded towns of Cetinje, Niksic, Rijeka Crnojevica, and Virpazar. They demanded that Serbian troops left Montenegro, and that those who instrumentalized Podgorica's Assembly be tried. They, however, wanted to avoid bloodshed and issued the statement to Serbian authorities:

"The assembly that took place in Podgorica on 11.11.1918, was scheduled in defiance of our Constitution, and above all, against the will of absolute majority of Montenegrins; therefore that led to uprising of Montenegrins against the decision of the Assembly whose executive branch is You...." (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd, p.14).
Despite being more numerous, rebels were poorly armed and not well organized. Thus, since they were no match for Serbian artillery, they were destined for a frontal defeat within days. Many were killed but some continued the resistance hiding in Montenegrin forests. In the following years (1919 and 1920) Serbian military authorities, assisted by whites, stepped up the terror against their opponents. They made arrests, convicted with no proofs of wrong doing, burn down houses, impose the wearing of the cap with four S(C), confiscated property and killed suspected rebels. In many parts of Montenegro frontal battles where artillery was used took place. By the end of 1920, Serbian authorities managed to subdue the rebels, so they did not represent any political or military treat even though rebellion was not over. In these difficult times many Montenegrins had to leave the country (D.Vujovic, Crnogorski federalisti 1919-1929, CANU, 1981, Titograd).
In 1920, Regent Alexander abolished the Montenegrin Autocephalous Orthodox Church by a decree. Also in an uncanonical and illegal manner property of Montenegrin Autocephalous Orthodox Church (~650) was transferred to the Serbian Orthodox Church and has not been reclaimed since.

Thus, ironically, Montenegro became the only Allied country in World War I to be annexed to another country after the end of the war even though it finished the war on the winning side. Moreover, following unification, Montenegro lost its official name and was administratively declared a region of Yugoslavia called Zeta (Zetska Banovina).

Of all the constituent parts of this newly unified state, Montenegro had suffered conspicuously the greatest proportionate loss of life during World War I.

Links for:
Serbo Rastoder: "Skrivena strana istorije - Crnogorska buna i odmetnicki pokret" (prikaz)
Historical Documents I - State Department Files....
Historical Documents II - State Department Files....
Historical Documents III - Serb insistence on Montenegrin surrender....
Historical Documents IV - The Paris Peace Conference....



 
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November 28 2006, 7:32 AM 

Montenegro in Yugoslavia, 1918-1992
In view of the dominant place of the Serb-Croat conflict in Yugoslav politics, almost no attention has been given by historians to the development of Montenegro between the world wars. Economic development, including foreign investment, followed the lines of political patronage-and therefore little of it filtered into Montenegro. No new rail building took place, no new mineral extraction was initiated, and there was little road construction. Having few large estates to expropriate, it was almost untouched by agrarian reform. Port development in the Gulf of Kotor was largely confined to military facilities; similarly, in the words of one historian, Bar in 1938 was "of very little importance".

By almost all indicators of economic well-being, the Zetska banovina (a governorship in interwar Yugoslavia that roughly corresponded to Montenegro) vied for the lowest place with the banovina of Vardarska (comprising parts of Macedonia). Montenegro's most important export in this period was probably emigrants.

Any dissatisfaction that this neglect may have occasioned on the part of Montenegrins is hard to gauge, given the centralization of Yugoslav politics and the proscription of free party organization under the royal dictatorship after 1929. It is perhaps indicative, however, that the Communist Party thrived as much in marginalized areas such as Montenegro as it did in such large industrial centers as Zagreb and Belgrade.

When Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis powers in April 1941, Montenegro was appropriated by the Italians under a nominally autonomous administration. Within a few months spontaneous armed resistance began. This was divided in its aims and loyalties between communists and their sympathizers and noncommunist bjelasi (advocates of union with Serbia). At the same time, some Montenegrin nationalists (zelenasi), disappointed by the experience of unification, supported the Italian administration. This local conflict was soon entangled within the wider Yugoslav struggle. The local strength of the party gave the communists an effective base in Montenegro. In addition, the area's remoteness and difficult terrain made it an important refuge for Tito's Partisan forces during the most difficult stage of their struggle, and it became a relatively safe haven after the fall of Italy.

The Montenegrins' traditional Pan-Slavism and inherited bravery made them natural allies with the communist project of the reunification of Yugoslavia. Consequently, after the war many Montenegrins found themselves in high positions within the military, political, and economic administration-in contrast to their former marginality. This same devotion to the party and to Soviet leadership, as well as to the Pan-Slav ideal, was in part responsible for the large number of Montenegrins who sided with Stalin in the dispute between the Cominform and the Yugoslav leadership. These people paid for their loyalty in subsequent purges particularly in 1948 following the notorious 'Resolution of Inforbiro'.

The communist strategy of attempting to unify Yugoslavia through a federal structure elevated Montenegro to the status of a republic, thus securing Montenegrin loyalty to the federation. Montenegro became a regular recipient of large quantities of federal aid, which enabled it to embark for the first time upon a process of industrialization. In spite of an attempt to develop the Niksic area as a center of both bauxite mining and steel production, economic progress was constantly hampered by the republic's marginality to the communication networks of the federation. It was not until the 1980s that the Montenegrin coast emerged as an important tourist area.

The breakup of the Yugoslav federation after 1989 left Montenegro in an acutely precarious position. The first multiparty elections in 1990 returned the reformed League of Communists to power, confirming Montenegrin support for the disintegrating federation. The Republic therefore joined Serbia efforts to preserve the Federation and in 1992 it acceded to the "Third Yugoslavia," a federal republic comprising only it and Serbia. On the other hand, in 1989 the remains of King Nicholas and other members of the former royal family were returned to Montenegro to be reentered with great ceremony in Cetinje. This sign of the continuing strength of a sense of distinctive Montenegrin identity was matched by lively criticism of the conduct of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, United Nations economic sanctions against Yugoslavia (1992) damaged Montenegro seriously, especially by undermining its lucrative tourist trade.

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
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Re: clans of crna gora

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November 28 2006, 7:34 AM 

The Legal Foundations of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC)























The Legal and constitutional foundations of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church (MOC) are given by the renown scholar Valtazar Bogisic whereas canonical matters are formulated by the renown historian and orthodox canonist Dr Nikodin Milas. Bogisic’s ‘Anketa’ (Pravni obicaji u Crnoj Gori, CANU, 1984, p. 238) states: "The Montenegrin Orthodox Church is autocephalous and independent eparchy that has no other legal relations with other autocephalous churches except peace and love". Similarly Dr Nikodin Milas in his textbook Pravoslavno crkveno pravo (1890, Zadar, p. 137, 237) presents the catalogue called Sintagma listing all known orthodox churches of that time. In the Sintagma, whose printing was approved by the Patriarchy of Constatinople in(Athens 1855), the "Autocephalous Metropolis of Montenegro (Autokefalna Mitropolija Crnogorska)" is listed under number nine.
Some Serbian theologians and historians (i.e. Prof. P. Cupic) distinguish two periods in the history of autocephalous church in Montenegro: the first period encompasses the time prior to recognition of its independence by the Holy Synod of Russian Orthodox Church while the second period covers the time of full independence thereafter (Glasnik pravoslavne crkve u Kraljevini Srbiji – Organ arhijerejskog sabora, number 3 and 5, 1901). The great majority of scholars who wrote on the subject agreed that, "with the abolishment of the Patriarchy of Pec in 1766, Sava (Petrovic Njegos) proclaimed himself an independent Metropolitan and the MOC continued its independent activities leaned on the Russian Orthodox Church who recognized its autocephaly (during the time of Petar I Petrovic Njegos). The autocephaly (independence) of the MOC was also recognized by the Patriarchy of Constantinople soon after". This is, among numerous sources, also reiterated in the religious textbook of the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) ‘Istorija opste hriscanske i Srpske Pravoslavne Crkve’ written by Z.M.Marinkovic and J. Igumanovic in 1934, p. 130, and approved by the Holy Synod of Archpriests SOC and recommended by the Main Educational Board).

However, this classification fails to encapture the period between 1455 nad 1557, when Montenegro was a part of Macedonian Ohrid Archbishoprics.

Thus, the Montenegrin Orthodox Church has been independent and autocephalous since 1603, and formally since 1766.

No serious historian or orthodox theologian has failed to recognize the historical role of the MOC and its autocephalous character. The fact that MOC enjoyed considerable respect within family of the Christian churches could be seen from their mutual correspondence. Among numerous best wishes sent for various occasions to the Autocephalous Montenegrin Orthodox Church (AMOC) one can find the message from His Holiness Patriarch of Constantinople as well as best wishes from the Serbian Orthodox Church to ‘sister church in religion and nationality’ ("sestrinskom po vjeri i narodnosti").

The organization and the internal governance of the MOC is regulated by:

Charter of the Holy Synod of the Principality of Montenegro from 1904,(see the image above) and
Law about parish clergy from August 31st 1909.
In addition, as in other orthodox churches, legal sources for activities of the MOC were also the church's canons and the regulations of the Holy Ecumenical Synod and the teachings of the Holy Fathers.

 
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