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Anonymous
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

KRENULO CRNOGORKAMA

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November 30 2006, 6:55 AM 



KVALIFIKACIJE ZA SVJETSKO PRVENSTVO RUKOMETAšICA -CRNOGORSKA REPREZENTACIJA OSTVARILA I DRUGU POBJEDU

Crnogorke "cepelinom" zaèinile veliki trijumf

Crna Gora - Turska 30:28 (11:13)


 
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Anonymous
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

Re: clans of crna gora

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November 30 2006, 6:57 AM 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Krajnje je jasno da su Srbi narod patoloskih psihopata koji lazu sami sebe da su pobijedili na Kosovu,a redom poklani bili,da je kraljevic Marko bio najveci borac protiv Turaka,a kraljevic Marko bio turski vezir,da su "pravoslavci" branili "krscansku Evropu" ,a ti isti "pravoslavci" za Turke ratovali 500 godina.U tu svrhu kao najbolji primjer treba uzeti "Bitku kod Nikopolja" koja se odigrala sedam godina poslije Kosovske bitke...Sa jedne strane krscanska evropska vojska,a sa druge Turci i Srbi.

 
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Anonymous
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Re: clans of crna gora

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November 30 2006, 3:52 PM 

I da je sve to tacno a nije gde ste bili vi "crnogorci" jurili se plemenski po brdima,ma daj smesan si

 
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G_r_i_f_o_n
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Re: clans of crna gora

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December 1 2006, 6:29 PM 

Citat: Zvek_zivi_Cetinjanin

"Krajnje je jasno da su Srbi narod patoloskih psihopata koji lazu sami sebe da su pobijedili na Kosovu,a redom poklani bili,da je kraljevic Marko bio najveci borac protiv Turaka,a kraljevic Marko bio turski vezir,da su "pravoslavci" branili "krscansku Evropu" ,a ti isti "pravoslavci" za Turke ratovali 500 godina.U tu svrhu kao najbolji primjer treba uzeti "Bitku kod Nikopolja" koja se odigrala sedam godina poslije Kosovske bitke...Sa jedne strane krscanska evropska vojska,a sa druge Turci i Srbi."

Odgovor:

Dakle, ti si licno toliko g***o od coveka da to ocima ne moze da se veruje (nema to nikakve veze sa nacijom niti bilo cime drugim, to je stvar licnosti najprostije receno).

Daj, pocni vec jednom da pises na maternjem jeziku; okani se vise ovog naseg (srpskog/hrvatskog/crno-gorskog/bosnjackog)...

Koji je tvoj problem, tebi licno dilejo mentalna sta ti imas (uopste: 'mozes da imas') protiv Srba - reci za Amerikance to sto si rekao za Srbe (i oni imaju Alamo, nakazo mentalna) - poenta je u secanju da se ne ponovi, sta se pravis blesav kog djavola.
Kako god da okrenes nisi u pravu: evo - prvo sam pomislio da kazem - eto bar da si u pravu u tome sto Srbi nisu branili 'krscansku' 'Evropu' - jer '(na)krst-ijanstvo' i 'Hrist-ijanstvo' nisu isto, nego su upravo dijametralni antonimi - Rimski krscani (na-krst-ijani) su ti koji su porobili narod kojem je Hrist pripadao i koji su ubili Hrista - nema sta hegemonijalni rimo-katolicizam da prisvaja Hrista (Rimljani su pomen Hrista sveli na puki marketing - bukvalno (teski sirovi materijalizam)). Rec 'Evropa' znaci zapad (mesto zalaska Sunca po etimologiji reci) - bukvalno - rec 'Evropa' je druga rec za 'Rim' (u smislu rimske imperije). Hriscanstvo je protiv hegemonije tog rima i postalo; sustina bog te!!
Ali, ustvari, nisi u pravu ni ako se tako okrene - jer - Srbi se jesu borili u austrijskoj vojsci i protiv Turaka (samo sto ih Hrvati svojataju (tada nije bilo bitno)).

Ocito postoje sledece podele:

Montenegrianci: Albanci i ostali nesloveni
Crnogorci: Srbi

Croati: Austrijanci
Hrvati: (Slaveni)

i podela Bosnjaka na lazne bosnjake (zapravo Turke) i prave Bosnjake (slovenske).
-------------------

Rimo-katolici nisu hriscani - shvati - to je religija nakrstijanstva - antihriststva.

 
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G_r_i_f_o_n
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Re: clans of crna gora

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December 1 2006, 6:44 PM 


Pavle1410:

"After studing the pictures, I can come up with one conclusion. Being Crnogorac has a different feel to it than being Serbian. I can really see the point you trying to make. Crna Gora propably has some common roots with Serbia, but have evolved into a different personality. I can see pride in both faces, but the Crnogorac seems to have more of a serious personality. I am glad to be Crnogorac. Veliko vam hvala for showing me the actual difference................Pavle"

Answer:
Read what I wrote in English previously and you will understand the whole thing.

 
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G_r_i_f_o_n
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Re: clans of crna gora

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December 1 2006, 6:58 PM 

Dukljanin:

"Do these two man belong to the same culture?"

Answer:

What is this? Is this some kind of a farse? How come this Pavle1410 agrees with you? It's against logic.

Why didn't you put this picture for the Serbian example, you malicious SATANIC sh**?
[img]http://www.nbs.bg.ac.yu/view_image.php?id=654[/img]

 
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G_r_i_f_o_n
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Re: clans of crna gora

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December 1 2006, 6:59 PM 


 
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Pavle1410
(Login Cetnikpajo)

Re: clans of crna gora

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December 2 2006, 2:24 AM 

Listen up people. My earliest ancestor was born in 1330 in Orlo. His name was Vuk Crnogorac. His one son was none other than Pavle Orlovic(1350-1389). Pavle's son Bjelan had his tongue cut out by the Turks and he than stuttered when he spoke, he was nicknamed Tepa. Bjelan's son than took up the name Tepavcevic. I don't really care if I am Serbian or Crnogorac. The way you guys argue back and forth is silly. I am proud to be Crnogorac, that is were my family is from since 1330 and propably before that too. That whole area of Bobotovo Groblje, Vratkovic, Donje Cardje, Kazanci, Krstac and Gacko along with Orline and Golija Mountain Range is where the Tepavcevici clan is from and fought for Serbs alike and lived Serbian for every generation that was there. Never any Turkish influence as far as I know. They were also Cetniks and served under Mihailovic. CRNOGORAC IS MY BLOOD(serbian)!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 
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Anonymous
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Serbia Forum Mods Group

Re: clans of crna gora

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December 3 2006, 12:30 AM 

"U tu svrhu kao najbolji primjer treba uzeti "Bitku kod Nikopolja" koja se odigrala sedam godina poslije Kosovske bitke...Sa jedne strane krscanska evropska vojska,a sa druge Turci i Srbi"

U bici kod Nikopolja 1396. godine ucestvovali su Despot Stefan Lazarevic, Marko Kraljevic i Konstantin Deanovic kao TURSKI VAZALI SA SVOJOM VOJSKOM a ne srpska vojska koja bi predstavljala srpsku drzavu.

 
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Anonymous
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Re: clans of crna gora

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December 6 2006, 10:00 PM 

Pavne1410: "CRNOGORAC IS MY BLOOD(serbian)!"

Answer: Of course... ...Did someone claim the opposite?? There are different Serb regions (e.g. Krajina (I mean - Serbs fought along with Croats against Turks - they earned it), Bosna, Vojvodina, Sumadija, Crna Gora, Nis region, Kosovo etc etc etc). You see, it's a different cathegory of terms - defining yourself as a Serb doesn't imply a strict teritory at all - just people (as there are a lot of Serbs in teritories out of Serbia itself). Defining yourself regionaly is something else (and Crna Gora historicaly and culturologicaly definitely has more to it). What matters here (the central question) is weither you are for democracy (people-rule (freedom)) of us who speak that one language (no matter how different nations call it) or a naive marionette of someone elses hegeony (e.g. Bosniacs (Slavs) serve to Arabic hegemony, and Croatians (Slavs) serve to Latin hegemony) - and, mind you, Slavs are group of people (a culture) just like Latins or Arabians so I can't understand why would someone betray his own culture, ancestors and people for someone else's... Being of this one whole (this singularity, this people) and in the same time being an orthodox christian you choose freedom - which, here, simply means being a Serb.

Ever since Roman legions (Templars, Crusaiders) brought enraged islam on us we suffer; then Austrians seeked to put a yoke on us - we rejected it although weaker - because we rather faced the death in winter and hunger then submit to the Roman satans or any other alien hegemony (again); we traveled a thousand miles to Krf and then came back victorious.
...What those same Austrians (Adolf Hitler being one) did latter is selfexplainatory...

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

odgovor bravu pod nickom grifon !

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December 17 2006, 3:41 PM 

Bravu glupi ljigavi svakome poluturcinu tj serebalju cu rado odgovorit na serinjanja koja izlazete odje !

Citat: Zvek_zivi_Cetinjanin

"Krajnje je jasno da su Srbi narod patoloskih psihopata koji lazu sami sebe da su pobijedili na Kosovu,a redom poklani bili,da je kraljevic Marko bio najveci borac protiv Turaka,a kraljevic Marko bio turski vezir,da su "pravoslavci" branili "krscansku Evropu" ,a ti isti "pravoslavci" za Turke ratovali 500 godina.U tu svrhu kao najbolji primjer treba uzeti "Bitku kod Nikopolja" koja se odigrala sedam godina poslije Kosovske bitke...Sa jedne strane krscanska evropska vojska,a sa druge Turci i Srbi."

Odgovor:

Dakle, ti si licno toliko g***o od coveka da to ocima ne moze da se veruje (nema to nikakve veze sa nacijom niti bilo cime drugim, to je stvar licnosti najprostije receno).

VIDIS JA LICNO MISLIM DA SI TI JEDNA SLINA LJIGAVA KOJOJ JE MOZAK IZPRAN SVETOSAVOVIJEM DEBILOM NEMANJICA BAJKAMA !

Daj, pocni vec jednom da pises na maternjem jeziku; okani se vise ovog naseg (srpskog/hrvatskog/crno-gorskog/bosnjackog)...

JA PISEM KAKO GA JE MENE MILO I VOLJA AKO TI SE NE SVIDJA OLEPRASAJ TAMO DJE TI JE MJESTO !!!!!

Koji je tvoj problem, tebi licno dilejo mentalna sta ti imas (uopste: 'mozes da imas') protiv Srba -



BRAVI JA NEMA PROTIV SEREBALJA NISTA I ZA NJIH ME ZABOLJE POLNI ORGAN ! ALI IMA PROTIV STOKE PODMUKLE LJIGAVE KOJA RADI SVE DA CRNU GORU UNISTI ,BACI LJAGU NA NJENU ISTORIJU MILENIJUMSKU ! STOKU OSEREBLJENU IZDAJNICKU ,PROTIV NJIH IMAM SA RAZLOGOM DOSTA TOGA !





reci za Amerikance to sto si rekao za Srbe (i oni imaju Alamo, nakazo mentalna) - poenta je u secanju da se ne ponovi, sta se pravis blesav kog djavola.


DEBILU GLUPI ZABOLJE MENE QURAC ZA AMERIKANCE ,NIJESU ONI DOSLI U MOJU KUCU OKUPIRALI JE SILOVALI OPLJACKALI UBILI NAROD PROCERALI KRALJA ,NEKANONSKI I NEZAKONITO UKINULI CRNOGORSKU PRAVOSLAVNU CRKVU ,PLANSKI I PO PROGRAMU (NACERTANJE) UNISTILI JEZIK ,NO VI GEDZOVANI UZ POMOC STOKE POSEREblöjene !



Kako god da okrenes nisi u pravu: evo - prvo sam pomislio da kazem - eto bar da si u pravu u tome sto Srbi nisu branili 'krscansku' 'Evropu' - jer '(na)krst-ijanstvo' i 'Hrist-ijanstvo' nisu isto, nego su upravo dijametralni antonimi - Rimski krscani (na-krst-ijani) su ti koji su porobili narod kojem je Hrist pripadao i koji su ubili Hrista - nema sta hegemonijalni rimo-katolicizam da prisvaja Hrista (Rimljani su pomen Hrista sveli na puki marketing - bukvalno (teski sirovi materijalizam))



A INACE VELJESERBALJI SU BILI CVIJECEM POSEBITRO BOLESNA PASMINA NEMANJICA KOJI "UVEDOSE" PRAVOSLAVLJE OGNJEM I MACOM !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
NO OKO SPC BI MOGA DECENIJAMA ZBORIT MA BI BILO JAKO MALO POZITIVNIJEH STVARI !




. Rec 'Evropa' znaci zapad (mesto zalaska Sunca po etimologiji reci) - bukvalno - rec 'Evropa' je druga rec za 'Rim' (u smislu rimske imperije). Hriscanstvo je protiv hegemonije tog rima i postalo; sustina bog te!!



MA ZA VAS SERBALJE JE EVROPA OSOVINA ZLA VI BI DA SAMO POSTOJI VELJA SERBADIJA DO TOKI(j)A PREKO MILWOKI(j)A HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHHAHA ! NO VI NEMOZE BIT !!!!!!!!!!!



Ali, ustvari, nisi u pravu ni ako se tako okrene - jer - Srbi se jesu borili u austrijskoj vojsci i protiv Turaka (samo sto ih Hrvati svojataju (tada nije bilo bitno)).

JES ZNAMO MI TO I ISUS JE BIO SERBIN MISIM STVARNO !!!!!

Ocito postoje sledece podele:

Montenegrianci: Albanci i ostali nesloveni
Crnogorci: Srbi

Croati: Austrijanci
Hrvati: (Slaveni)

i podela Bosnjaka na lazne bosnjake (zapravo Turke) i prave Bosnjake (slovenske).


STO TREBA DA TI NEKO NACINI DA SVATIOS DA STE SPEC PASMINA SA KOJOM NIKO NA ZEMALJSKU KUGLU NECE A `?????? DA SE CRTA U SLIKAMA ,DA SE PJEVA U PJESMICAMA A ?????+


STO VI CINITE U VASKU DRZAVU CINITE ZABOLJE NE QRAC ALI NE SERINJAJTE U TUDJU DRZAVU ! TO NIJE VASE SETNJA !!!!!!
-------------------

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

EDUKACIJA JE CUDI IZRODI OSEREbljeni

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December 17 2006, 3:46 PM 

History of Montenegro - Introduction
"Capital of stone - ray of light - Montenegro - history, the only nationality of yours is the man and his dignity, and only true history of yours is insubordination to evil and faith in ethical values-sum of your spirituality"

"...Montenegro's role in Balkan affairs has been slightened by Western historical literature... inquiries into the nature of Europe's power keg have frequently sidestepped Montenegro in order to tackle the seemingly more substantive and controversial case of Serbia" (John D. Treadway, The Falcon & Eagle, Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908-1918, Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1983).

"On the map the Montenegro looks like a mere pin head, but the point to that pin became an unendurable irritation in Turkey's side and helped to save Europe from entire domination by the Orient" (Whitney Warren, Montenegro: The Crime of the Peace Conference, 1922, Brentano's, New York).

In his excellent history of 'The Balkans since 1453', L.S. Stavrianos acknowledged that "the role of Montenegro in South Slav and general Balkan affairs was quite out of proportion to her ridiculously meager material resources (1958, Rinehart, New York).

"We lack Austria's strength, but we are a small, courageous people. We, the falcons of the Black Mountains, yearn to soar ahead of Austria's eagles (A letter of Nicholas (Nikola) I to Baron Giesl, 1911).

THEY rose to where their sovereign eagle sails,
They kept their faith, their freedom, on the height,
...
O smallest among peoples! rough rock-throne
Of Freedom! warriors beating back the swarm
...
Great Tsernogora! never since thine own
...
(Alfred Lord Tennyson, " Montenegro", Nineteenth Century, 1877)

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

EDUKACIJA POSEREBICA I GEDZOVANA !

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December 17 2006, 3:49 PM 






















Duklja (Doclea), the first Montenegrin state - Vojislavljevic' rule

The Doclea's (Dukljanski) period, which dated from the IX to the end of the XII century, was probably the most prosperous one in the history of Montenegrins. With the rise of feudalism between VIII and IX centuries, which signified an end to blood related, tribal associations, the (Sklavinija) Doclea (Duklja) gradually became a Principality (Knezevina -Arhontija) in the second part of the IX century. The first known prince (knez-arhont) was Petar. In 1884 a lead stamp was found, on which was engraved in Greek "Petar prince of Doclea". In addition, it also was engraved with the Madonna with Christ, and the word "amin" after Petar's title and two crosses. This is a very important finding, since it confirms not only that Doclea (Duklja) was a principality (Byzantine vassal), but also that Petar was a christianized Slav prince. This implies that Docleans (Dukljani) were christened before the beginning of the Slavic mission of Cirilo and Metodije in the second part of the IX century (V.Nikcevic, Crnogorski jezik, 1993). Similarly, according to D. Zivkovic's findings (Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989), Doclea was christianized by the middle of the IX century and this period is characterized with the spreading of Latin literacy and culture.

In 1016, Doclea is ruled by the first known nominally independent prince Vladimir (son of Petrislav). From 1018-1043 the Principality of Doclea (Duklja) was ruled by Vladimir's nephew Stefan Vojislav who was a Byzantine vassal until 1041.

After defeating Macedonian rebels and regaining Drac, Byzantium, helped by prince of Zahumlje, head of tribal state Bosnia, and ban of Serbia, attacked Doclea (Duklju) in 1042/43 from all sides (J.Skilica).The attackers suffered heavy defeats (35 000) in Tudjemili, near Bar, and the Byzantium Czar was forced to recognize the Doclea's (Duklja) independence, and forge friendship and alliance with Mihailo, the son of Vojislav, giving him the title of ?(protospator)(J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 11). Thus, victory of Prince Vojislav over Byzantium in Tudjemili near Bar in 1042/43 signified liberation from Byzant control, and he became sovereign of Doclea (Duklja) which is in Byzant sources called Zeta after this battle. Zeta, thus, was the first of the South Slav states to be recognized as a sovereignty by Byzantium and this began the thousand year history of the Montenegrin state. The sovereignty of Zeta encompassed Raska, Bosnia, Travunia (Travunija), and Zahumlje (Dragoje Zivkovic, Istorija crnogorskog naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

Doclea/Zeta was ruled by princes until 1077, when pope Gregory (Grgur) VII sent the king's insignia (rex Sclavorum) to Mihailo who became the king of Doclea/Zeta. Consequently Doclea/Zeta became a kingdom (Dukljansko Kraljevstvo). The image of King Mihailo with his crown is still found in the Church of St. Mihailo in Ston, a town in the Peljesac peninsula (in present-day Croatia). In a letter from 1077, the Pope refers to him as "Michaeli Sclavorum Regi" (Mihailo, King of the Slavs). Together with the recognition of Mihailo as King of Zeta, the Pope also considered his request that Duklja's bishopric in Bar be raised to an archbishopric. After an unsuccessful challenge of this request by the rival archbishoprics in Dubrovnik and Split, the Pope (Clement III), on January 8, 1089, issued a bull to Mihailo's son King Bodin raising the Bar bishopric to the status of archbishopric, with ten subordinated bishoprics and Archbishop Petar as head. It comprised bishoprics (episkopije): Dukljanska (Barska), Kotorska, Ulcinjska, Svacka, Skadarska, Drivatska, Pulatska (Pilotska), Raška, Bosanska, Zahumska, Travunijska, and all the Dalmatian (catholic), Greek, and Slavic (in Raska orthodox Old-Slav speaking bishopric) monasteries .

Duklja's power and prosperity, thus reached their zenith under Vojislav's son, King Mihailo (1046-81), and his son King Bodin (1081-1101). The enlargement of the Doclea's state and the consolidation of its power was achieved by the mighty King Mihailo. The state expansion was achieved at the expense of Bosnia and Raska (the precursor of present-day Serbia). Mihailo made his son Petrislav to be the vassal ruler of Raska.

By marrying the niece of the Byzantine emperor Constatine IX, King Mihailo departed from the policy of wars and hostilities of his father toward Byzantium.

King Mihailo died in 1081 putting an end to the impressive 35-year reign. He was succeeded by his son Bodin who emerged as a victor from a brief power struggle for the throne. In that power struggle he sent his brother Dobroslav and his close cousin Kocopar into exile bringing Zeta closer to Raska (J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 11). Bodin continued the successful policies of his father enlarging his state and establishing vassal states in Bosnia (under Stefan) and Raska (under Vukan and Marko). The Vojislavljevics' era, however, was set on a declining path by the death of King Bodin in 1101 and the subsequent power struggle.
Cultural Development

In the second half of XII century, the church of Saint Triphun was built in Kotor. This church was built on the foundations of an old church (mentioned in so called Andreacijecu in 809, and, according to legend, ruined during Samuilo's conquest of Kotor in 998 (Dragoje Zivkovic, Istorija crnogorskog naroda, Cetinje, 1989). The church of Saint Triphun is one of the most important sacred buildings of the mature Romanics on the East coast of the Adriatic (ibid.).

During the 80s in the XII century (1183 the latest), anunknown Doclean Benedictine priest (Pop Dukljanin), wrote the famous "Kingdom of Slavs" (Kraljevstvo Slavena) also known as Regnum Sclavorum and sometimes called Ljetopis Popa Dukljanina. According to Zivkovic (ibid.), this work is the oldest source of domestic provenience for the history of Doclea; it is written in local Slavonic (Doclean/Zeta's/Montenegrin) language. It has reached us in the Latin transcription (ibid.). Acknowledging that the notion the Montenegrin (Crnogorski), was not found in Doclean period, V. Nikcevic uses it as a synonym for Doclean/Zeta's (Dukljanski/Zetski) and states that the Montenegrin language in that period had already had its phonologic, morphological, and syntax structure, built up on the Ancient-Slavonic or South-Slavonic linguistic basis (V.Nikcevic, Jezicki i knjizevni znacaj crkava s podrucja Skadarskog jezera, Skadarsko jezero, CANU, Titograd, 1980). Similarly an other Montenegrin historian writes that "during the centuries, since Dukljanin's 'Kingdom of Slavs', it was created rich, written and spoken literature, in, objectively, Montenegrin language (D. Radojevic, Etnicke odrednice jezika- Naziv nije neutralan, Vjesnik, br, 14999, Zagreb, 1989). Contrary to these views, another Montenegrin historian, denies that the term nation, in Dukljanin's 'Kingdom of Slavs', is used in an ethnical sense (D. Vujovic, O ethnogenezi Crnogoraca i marksistickom odredjenju nacije, Praksa, br 4, Titograd 1981, p73).





 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
(Login Zvek_Zivi_Cetinjanin)

EDUKACIJA POSEREBICA I GEDZOVANA !

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December 17 2006, 3:51 PM 

Nemanjics' period (1186-1353)

After Bodin's death, the infighting among his potential successors weakened the Doclean state and brought about Raska's reign. Between 1183 and 1186, relying on the domestic feudal lords who betrayed the state interest, the Great Raska's chieftain Stefan Nemanja, conquered Zeta and ended the first period of the Montenegrin state.

With the conquest of Duklja / Zeta, as it was referred to from the 11th century, Nemanja is said to have destroyed entire coastal towns, (except Kotor), that never subsequently recovered. In the tide of destruction Nemanja also had destroyed 'monuments of Latin literacy by burning local churches and books. It is claimed that he also persecuted the Bogomils, and expelled the Greeks from Zeta'(Rovinski, Crna Gora u proslosti i sadasnjosti, Cetinje, 1993, p.279).

The Duklja/Zeta destruction was accompanied with the forceful conversion of Zeta's population to Orthodox Christianity. In 1185, the Bar's archbishop Grgur, escaped Nemanja's reprisal, which, factually and formally, ended the existence of Archdiocese in Bar.

In 1190, Nemanja's son Vukan, the first time mentioned Regent of Zeta/Doclea, asserted the Doclean King crown ('Kraljevstva od isprva'). He converted to Catholicism in order to be accepted by the Zeta's feudal lords (D.Zivkovic, ibid.). The Zeta's King Vukan, restored the Archdiocese in Bar in 1199, after approval of Pope Inocentie (Inocentije) III. In 1219, the regent of Zeta became King Djordje, the oldest son of King Vukan. He was succeeded by his second oldest son Stefan (mentioned in 1252), who built 'Uspenje Bogorodice' monastery in Moraca (D.Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

Between 1276 and 1309, the Queen Helen (Jelena), a catholic (from the Kurtene family) widow of Raska's/Serbia's King Uros I, was ruling Zeta. She advanced the highest level of autonomy of the Zeta state within Nemanjic's Serbia and built and restored around 50 monasteries in Zeta, most notably St. Srdj and Vakh on the river Bojana under Shkoder (ibid.). During this period (1296), the name Crna Gora (Montenegro) is mentioned for the first time in the charter of St. Nicholas' monastery (Vranjina) issued by the Raska's king Milutin, who was the younger son of Uros I and Jelene Kurtene (D.Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). Crna Gora is to be understood as the highland region under mountain Lovcen, within Zeta, and under the domination of Raska (ibid.). During King Milutin's reign, at the beginning of XIV century, the Archdiocese in Bar was the biggest feudal lord in Zeta (J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 18).

From 1309 to 1321, demanded by the Zeta's lords, the state was co-ruled by the oldest son of Raska's/Serbian King Milutin, young King Stefan (later Decanski). Similarly, from 1321 to 1331, Stefan's young son Dusan (future Serbian king and tzar) co-ruled Zeta with his father.

After the Serbian tzar Dusan Nemanjic death in 1355, the Serbian Kingdom started to crumble and its holdings were divided among the Prince (knez) Lazar Hrebeljanovic, the short-lived Bosnian state of Tvrtko I (reigned 1353-91), and a semi-independent chiefdom of Zeta under the Balsic dynasty, who increasingly asserted Zeta's sovereignty. Zeta, thus, regained its independence under the second Montenegrin dynasty, the Balsic, whose founder Balsa I, came to power in 1360.

Between 1186 and 1190, the first Cyrillic monument of Zeta's (Zetske)/Montenegrin edition of Old-Slavic literal language, was made (Miroslav's Gospel). Miroslav's Gospel (Miroslavljevo Jevandjelje) was probably rewritten in Kotor by order of Miroslav, Prince of Zahumlje, and a cousin (female line) of Raska ruler Stefan Nemanja (D.Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

 
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December 17 2006, 3:52 PM 

Balsics' Rule (1356-1427)
The most prosperous and mightiest era of Raska's (Serbian) history was brought to an end by the death of mighty but cruel tzar Dusan (1355). Ceasing the opportunity, the leading dynasty in Zeta, the Balsics, reasserted Zeta's independence in the early 1360s.

Balsa I, the founder of the dynasty had three sons: Stracimir, Djuradj and Balsa II. The later two ruled Zeta from 1362 to 1378 and 1378 to 1385, respectively. However, the most influential Balsic is said to had been Djuradj I, who enlarged and consolidated Zeta's renewed power and took Prizren (a town in present-day Kosovo). While he was battling at the south of Kosovo his young brother, Balsa II got married to close cousin of mighty tzar Dusan's wife Jelena. Thus, by marring Komnina, Djuradj II received a generous dowry: Avlona, Berat, Kanina and some additional important regions. Djuradj I coined an alliance with Vukasin Mrnjavcevic (Vardar Valley) but the later soon was killed in the Battle on River Marica (1371)(J.Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 28).

Djuradj I run Zeta as the modern ruler of the time. Zeta's institutions were functioning well, while the coastal towns enjoyed considerable autonomy. The commerce was well developed and enhanced by the existence of Zeta's currency - the dinar.

Djuradj I allied with his neighbors Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic of Serbia, Ban Tvrtko I of Bosnia, Prince Nikola Gorjanski and King Ludovik I of Ungary, to defeat ambitious Herzegovian ruler Nikola Altomanovic (1373). However, defeated and blinded Nikola Altomanovic found a refuge with Djuradj I until his death.

In a division of the conquered Herzegovina, the Balsics took the towns of Trebinje, Konavle and Dracevica. Subsequent dispute over these towns led to the war between Djuradj I Balsic and Ban Tvrtko that was won eventually by the later but with a support of Ungary (Hungary) and only after Djuradj's death (1378). In 1382, Bosnian Ban Tvrtko I conquered Dracevic (Zupu Dracevicu), and built town later known as Herceg Novi (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). The Ungarians were supporting Ban Tvrtko because he, as well as Prince (knez) Lazar of Serbia recognized Ungarian rule while Balsa II refused to do so. In any case, both Ban Tvrtko and Balsa II had aspirations to be on the throne of the Nemanjic state (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

Djuradj died in 1378, and was succeeded by the third son of Balsa I, Balsa II. Balsa II could not maintain the control of the feudal lords Djuradj I had controlled. His power was felt only in region around Shkoder (Skadar) and in the eastern part of the Zeta's cost. The most prominent feudal lords who did not recognize Balsa's rule were Djurasevic-Crnojevic. They were permanently encouraged by the Venetians' intrigues to rebel against Balsa II.

Balsa II needed four attempt to conquer Drac, an important commercial and strategic center. Defeated Karlo Topi went to Turks for a help. Turkish forces led by Hajrudin pasha inflicted heavy defeat on Balsa's II forces and killed Balsa in a big battle on Saurian field (Saurijsko polje) near Berat, in 1385 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).


The successor of Balsa II, Djuradj II Balsic (1385-1403), Balsa's nephew (son of Stracimir) had enormous difficulties to control the local feudal lords. He did not have any control over the feudal lords in the entire Upper Zeta. In addition, the feudal lords around Onogost (Niksic) accepted the Venetian protection and particularly did so Radic Crnojevic who controlled the area between Budva and Lovcen. Moreover, a number of Arbanas feudal lords, particularly Leka and Pavle Dukadjini joined the conspiration against Djuradj II (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

Having this in mind as well as the constant danger from the Turks, Djuradj II Balsic maintained good family ties with Serbian rulers of the time, Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic. His mother, Milica Mrnjavcevic, was a sister of Prince Vukasin of Serbia, and he married Jelena who was a daughter of Prince Lazar of Serbia. In order to help Prince Lazar to defend his state from Turkish invasion, Djuradj II sent his troops with Ban Tvrtko's forces (with whom he had a dispute over Kotor) to meet the Turkish army at Kosovo Polje. Despite Sultan Murat death, the orthodox coalition suffered a defeat in the epic Battle of Kosovo (1389).

In later years Djuradj II played skillful diplomatic games to enhance the rivalry between the Turks and the Venetians. For that purpose he offered Shkoder (Skadar) to both hoping that he will be able to keep it eventually. For two years the Turks and the Venetians fought over Shkoder to leave it eventually to Djuradj II who was neutral in the conflict. Similarly, the rivalry between the Venetians and the Hungarians brought a benefit to Balsa II. After the heavy defeat of his forces in the hands of Venetians near Nikopolje, the Ugarian (Hungarian) King Sigismund gave the title of Prince of Arbania ('Princeps od Arbanije') and chiftainship of Hvar and Korcula to Balsa II (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

In the feud between Turkish vassal Djuradj Brankovic and his uncle Stevan Lazarevic (son of Prince Lazar) who later received the title of Byzantine despot, Djuradj II sided with Stevan. Due to Djuradj's support, Stevan defeated Turkish forces led by Djuradj Brankovic in the battle of Gracanica on Kosovo field (21 June 1402) (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 36).

In 1403, Djuradj II's 17-year old son, Balsa III, inherited the rule of Zeta as his father died in consequence of the injuries suffered in the battle of Gracanica. As he was young and inexperienced his main advisor was his mother Jelena a sister of the ruler of Serbia at the time , Stevan Lazarevic. Under the influence of his mother, Jelena, Balsa III reverted the order of the state religion, passing the law whereby declaring the Christian Orthodox as the official confession of the state, while Catholicism became tolerant confession (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

Balsa III continued the politics of his father. In 1418 he conquered Shkoder from Venetians but lost Budva. In the next year (1419) he made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture Budva. He went to Belgrade to ask for a help from Stevan Lazarevic but never returned to Zeta. In 1421, before his death and under the influence of his mother Jelena, he passed the rule of Zeta to Stevan Lazarevic. 'Despot' Stevan fought Venetians and regained Bar in the mid of 1423 but in the following year sent his son Djuradj Brankovic regaining Drivast and Ulcinium (Ulcinj) (J. Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, Obod, Cetinje 1947, p. 43).

This marked the end of the Balsic dynasty. Between 1421 and 1446, Crna Gora (this Venetian form of the Italian Monte Nero is a translation of the name Crna Gora, "Black Mountain"), as the country was widely known after 1435, was in a state of interregnum; the power struggle embroiled Serbian despot Stevan (Serbia was double vassal; Turkish and Ugarian), Venetia, and Crna Gora/Gornja Zeta (under dynasty of Crnojevic's).





The oldest legislative document of the Zeta state (later Crna Gora-Montenegro) was issued on January 17th 1368. The facsimile here enclosed is a copy of the Additional Decree of Balsa II Balsic issued November 20th 1395.


 
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December 17 2006, 3:53 PM 

Crnojevic Rule
After the Balsic dynasty died out in 1421, the focus of Doclean/Zetian resistance shifted northward to Zabljak (south of Podgorica) in the basin of Shkoder (Skadarsko) Lake. Here, a chieftain named Stefan Crnojevic set up his capital, adding another important chapter to the turbulent history of Montenegro.

Like its predecessors Balsics, Crnojevics entered historical scene while Montenegro was suffering from a political turmoil and was threatened to be divided among neighbouring conquerors - Turks, Venetians, and Serbian despots united with the Turks.

More precisely, Djurasevic family returned to its previous family name, Crnojevic, and entered political scene during the time of Balsa III. They helped Balsa III during Shkoder's Wars (1411-1413 and 1419-1421). Since Balsa III handed Zeta to his father in law Stefan Lazarevic, Crnojevics formally recognised the rule of Stefan Lazarevic in Zeta (1421-1427). However, after the death of the Serbian despot Stefan Lazarevic, Zeta was inherited by his nephew the Serbian despot Djuradj Brankovic who, at the time, needed to pacify his greatest enemy, the Ottomans and could not pay particular attention to Zeta. So grave the Serbia's position was, that despot Djuradj had to accept to pay yearly tax of 50 000 Ducats to Turks, as well as to send his beloved daughter Mara to Harem and make available 20 000 soldiers whenever Sultan needed them.

Capitalising on the weak position of despot Djuradj, both Venetians and Herzegovian despot Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca, conquered parts of Djuradj's territory. Since Kosaca was a Turkish vassal, Stefan Crnojevic, who had already established himself as the head of Crnojevic dynasty (around 1435) in Upper Zeta/Montenegro (as this territory was known after this date), was forced to make territorial concessions. In addition Kasaca took Stefan's son Ivan as a hostage hoping that this will force Stefan to be on his side when need be.

In order to strengthen his power Stefan Crnojevic married Mara, the oldest daughter of a respected Albanian lord, Ivan Kastriot. This marriage became particularly important after Djerdj, a son of Ivan Kastriot, allied with Ungarian army to defeat Murat II, and cut ties with Turkey, making himself the legendary leader (Skender-beg) of Albanian liberation movement. More importantly, threatened by the Serbian despots and their Turkish allies on one hand, and lured by the promise of his son's Ivan liberation from Kosaca's captivity on the other, Stefan Crnojevic forged an alliance with Venice. After years of negotiations Stefan finally agreed to ratify the agreement (06.09.1455), according to which he was to be recognised as the undisputed leader in Zeta who would rule on behalf of Venice, and be awarded the titles of Captain and Duke in addition to an annual fee of 500 Ducats. On his part, Stefan undertook to make available military capacity to Venice for two months a year on his expense.

This agreement is characterised not as recognition of Venetian sovereignty over Montenegro but rather as a military pact, which allowed Stefan to move majority of his forces from the borders with Venice toward Herzegovian and South-eastern borders. The majority of Turkish attacks and intrusions were coming from the fortress of Medun, which was given to Turks by Milos, a Duke of Djuradj Brankovic in 1456, after three successive defeats in the hands of Stefan Crnojevic.

The territory over which Stefan Crnojevic had sovereignty, apart from mountainous area under mount Lovcen and Cetinje, comprised 51 municipalities. It included Rijeku Crnojevica, Zeta's plain, Bjelopavlici, Pjesivci, Malonsici, Piperi, Hoti, Klimenti, and other "clans" (municipalities) with 3500 households and the population of around 30 000 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, 1989, p. 341). Total population of Zeta/Montenegro including regions under the Venetian, Kosaca's and Turkish rule, was about 80 000 (ibid).

While defending his country against Turks, Stefan Crnojevic managed to stabilize it internally, establishing a new socio-political basis, creating a new flag as the state symbol, and making solid foundations for his dynasty. Stefan Crnojevic, thus, laid the foundations for the future post-feudal atypical state, that remains a state for itself, unusual and unrepeatable. The meaning and purpose of its existence was the freedom for which its people were ready to give everything including their lives. Montenegro as it was called thereafter, became among fellow Slavs the symbol of freedom, liberation, and unconquered fortress that even defied the mighty Ottoman Empire.

Stefan Crnojevic was succeeded by his son Ivan, who ruled Montenegro from 1465 to 1490. Immediately after taking a rule, Ivan attacked Venetians braking the alliance his father had forged. However, after an initial success Ivan realised that the major danger for his country is represented in Ottoman Empire, so that he re-established the alliance with Venice. Ivan fought numerous battles against Turks. He took part in defending Shkoder (Skadar), where the Venetian defenders fought off forces of Turkish Sultan Mehmed II and eventually won the war in 1474. However, this victory was not to be long lasted, since Sultan forces conqured Shkoder in 1479 and signed a peace treaty with Venice unfavourable for the later. Knowing that the Turks will try to punish Ivan for his part in the war on the Venetian side, Ivan moved his capital Zabljak from the basin of Shkoder (Skadarsko) Lake to Dolac under mount Lovcen. In 1482 Ivan built his court in Dolac (Cetinje) inspired by other European feudal courts. Apart from his modern palace, Ivan built a monastery (1484) which became the residency of Montenegrin Metropolitans (1485) and the see of a bishopric. Cetinje, thus became the capital of Montenegro (Podlovcenska Crna Gora) from which Ivan organised the defence of his country. He was dreaming to organise an anti Turkish alliance comprised of Napolitan, Venetian, Ungarian and his forces. However his dream could not be fulfilled since the Venetians did not dare to give help to Ivan after the peace treaty with Turkey forged in 1479. Left on his own, Ivan single-handedly managed to preserve sovereignty of Montenegro from frequent Turkish attacks and offensives.

During Ivan life the rule of Montenegro was passed to his oldest son Djuradj while his youngest son Stanisa, disillusioned with the impossibility to succeed his father went to Istanbul and converted to Islam. As a loyal servant of Sultan, Stanisa later became the Shkodrian 'sandzak-beg' under the name of Skender. His brothers Djuradj and Stefan continued the struggle against Ottomans. The historical facts are unclear and disputed, but it seems that Venetians, frustrated by their own inability to subdue Crnojevics to their own interests, managed to kill Stefan and deceitfully sent Djuradj to Istanbul. Namely Djuradj visited Venice in order to work on the "wide anti Turkish campaign" but was kept in captivity for some time while his brother Stefan was defending his country against Turkish forces. It is likely that on his returned to Montenegro, Djuradj was kidnapped by the Venetian agents and sent to Istanbul via Shkoder under accusation that he had been organising a Holly War against Islam. There are some unreliable claims that Djuradj was given to rule Anadolia but in any case the reports about Djuradj life ceased after 1503 (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989).

As noted by the Montenegrin historian D. Zivkovic (1989, p.367), even though we can not be sure how Crnojevics ended their lives, we can say with certainty that Djuradj and his brother Stefan left the Montenegrin throne forever in 1496 and 1498 respectfully. The end of 15 century thus signifies the end of the rule of famous Crnojevics dynasty in Montenegro. That does not mean that Montenegro (Podlovcenska Crna Gora), in contrast to other Balkan countries, lost its factual sovereignty, freedom and independence. On the contrary; Montenegrin State strengthened on different socio-economic foundations, became the lighthouse of freedom for all Balkan countries as envisaged by Stefan Crnojevic, the founder of Crnojevic dynasty.

The Religious and Cultural Heritage of Balsics' and Crnojevics'

The frequent change of borders of the state of Zeta, later called Montenegro (from Venetian form of Monte Nero), predictably had an impact on the religious confessions of the local population. Some historians claim, that until the end of 14 century Catholic ideology embodied in the offensive religious and cultural policies in the coastal regions of Zeta under Venetian rule, made Catholicism to be dominant religion in this region pushing Orthodox Christendom inward toward continental Zeta (D. Zivkovic, 1989, p.377). Thus, limiting it on the small area under the mount Lovcen where eventualy, it was brought under jurisdiction of Cetinje diocese. The proclamation of Orthodox Christendom as a state religion by Balsa III, did not help much the Orthodox population in the regions under Venetian rule. This part of population was systematically converted to Catholicism or Uniatism. Religious policies of various serbian despots, Balsa III and later Crnojevics paved the way for the mono-confessionalism of population within the borders of Montenegrin state. A Montegrin historian, D. Zivkovic (1989, p.377), suggested that the part of Zetian/Montenegrin Orthodox population, determined to preserve its faith moved to the unoccupied territory ruled by Crnojevics. Furthermore, according to Zivkovic (1989, p. 377) the population under "Crnojevic political ingerence" since time of Ivan Crnojevic and thereafter, has belonged to the Orthodox confession.

The religious background of Zetian State under Balsa III and his mother Helen, and their followers dynasty Crnojevics, helps understand their cultural aspiration of the time. Among the most important literal works of that time is 'Gorica's Almanac' (Goricki zbornik). The writing of this work (1441-1442) was sponsored by Balsa's mother Helen who, after the death of her second husband, Sandalj Hranic Kosaca (1435), decided to spend the end of her life in a monastery. Goricki zbornik is synthesis of Byzantine theological doctrine and, like other writings of the time in this region, was written in old church-Slavic language of Zetian/Montenegrin edition.

An important work of church-legal literature is a translation of 'Syntagm' (1380) by Matija Vlastar. By its spirit and letter, the Vlastar's Syntagm glorified the Greek-eastern position of Cezar-Popeism. The doctrine presented in the Valtazar's Syntagm was embraced by Stefan Crnojevic in his struggle against Serbian despot Djuradj Brankovic. Stefan found in the Syntagm international legal dimension where was claimed that "it is a natural right that every nation (people) has a legitimacy of her own within countries of Eastern Orthodox hemisphere".

A considerable part of cultural legacy of the Balsics' and Crnojevics' epochs could be found in the numerous religious books of Greek Eastern provenience. The most important among them are listed below. Their titles and location, where known, are written as known in Montenegro, without translation, since most of them have not been published yet.

'Vranjinsko cetvorojevandjelje' (1436) - Odessa private collection.
'Praksapostol' (1441/42) (The Epistles of Apostles) - disappeared in the Serbian National Library in 1941 destruction.
'Triod Moracki' (1444) National Library, Berlin.
'Sabornik cetirem mjesecem' (1484/84) - University Library, Torino.
'Caslovac' by Nikola Kosijer (1484).
'Cetinjski psaltir' (first half of XV century) - University of Zagreb.
In several monasteries in Montenegro there is a number of important old books and writings. Most of these books could be found in the monastery Nikoljac in Podvrh near Bijelo Polje, Monastery St. Trinity near Pljevlja, and Monastery of Cetinje.
The written religious legacy from XVI and XV centuries, although neither well preserved nor researched sufficiently, proves that the literature was developed in Zeta/Montenegro during the Balsic' and Crnojevics' epoches. Thus, Zetian/Montenegrin cultural environment, from early Doclean period to Balsics' and Crnojevics' phase, had a continuity of cultural development that was not discontinued even when it was under foreign (Raskian) supremacy. Given that on this territory were written famous works as 'The Pontificate of Bishopric of Kotor' (end of XI or beg. of XII cent.), 'Kingdom of Slavs' also known as 'Regnum Sclavorum' and sometimes called 'Chronicle of Father Doclean' written by an unknown Doclean Benedictine priest, as well as 'Miroslav's Gospel' from the end of XII century, it is no surprise that here was founded the Crnojevics' print shop as the highest expression of the earlier cultural stratum.

The First Montenegrin Print Shop

The Crnojevics' print-shop was the first in Southestearn Europe and the first among the South Slavs. The print-shop had enormous role in the diffusion of books and literacy, as well as in spreading the culture well beyond the local area. It is believed that the print press was brought in Montenegro from Venice between 1476 and 1478 by Ivan Crnojevic, the most educated Montenegrin at the time. The press could not be installed to operate before 1485, when Cetinje Monastery was erected, because Crnojevic were preoccupied with the wars against Ottomans in which former lost control of the Capital Zabljak (1478) in the basin of Shkoder Lake. Historians believe that subsequent seven years, after installation of the print shop in Cetinje Monastery, were used to train the printing staff led by famous monk Makarije. The first book printed on the Obod press by Makarije was the Orthodox service book, the 'Octoechos' (Oktoih), which is the first printed Cyrillic book of the South Slavs (January 1494). In the Orthodox Church, the Oktoih is a book of liturgical hymns, intended to be sung in eight parts. Cyrillic incunabulas 'Oktoih Prvoglasnik', 'Oktoih Petoglasnik', 'Psaltir', 'Trebnik', and 'Cvetni Triod' printed in Cetinje between 1493 and 1496 during the rule of Djurdj Crnojevic represent the most impressive examples of the culture of the times.



 
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December 17 2006, 3:54 PM 

The Regions (Nahije) of Old Montenegro
The Old Montenegro (Stara Crna Gora) comprised Katunska (the bigest), Rijecka (the richest), Crmnicka, and Ljesanska nahija. Some authors (M.Bolica, Turkish defters, Vladika Vasilije) also include Pjesivce and sometimes other nahijas but this classifications faded away eventually.

Katunska nahija has nine clans (tribes): Cetinje, Njegusi, Ceklici, Bjelice, Cuce (Velje i Male), Ozrinice (Cevljani), Pjesivci (Gornji i Donji),Zagarac (Gornji i Donji), and Komani (Komani, in a narrow sense Bandici).

Rijecka nahija has five clans (tribes): Ceklin (Gornji i Donji), Ljubotinj (Gornji i Donji), Gradjani, Dobrsko Selo, and Kosijeri.

Ljesanska nahija in an unfinished grouping of clans (tribes) has following clans: Drazevina, Gradac, Buronje.

Crmnicka nahija is divided on: Podgor, Dupilo, Brcele, Gluhi Do, Sotonice, Limljani and Boljevice.

Source: Djoko Pejovic, Crna Gora u doba Petra I i Petra II, Beograd, 1981, p.14.

Guvernadur Radonjic in 1711 wrote to Maria Teresia, that Montenegro is divided in five regions (nahija-Pjesivci included). They are governed by 5 Grand Dukes (serdari), 9 Dukes (vojvoda), and 34 Princes (kneza). Furthermore he suggested that Serdars have very important role and should be paid twice as much as Vojvodas (Zapisi, 1939, Cetinje).




 
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December 17 2006, 3:55 PM 

Montenegro under the Vladikas' (Prince-Bishops) (1516-1697)
After the death of Djuradj Crnojevic, Zeta/Crna Gora was ruled by his brother Stefan, who was a Turkish vassal. In the new administrative division of Balkan, Montenegro was a part of the Skadarski Sandzakat(1499-1514). During this period, while Brda and North-West of Montenegro were nominally independent, the part of Montenegro under the mountain Lovcen (Podlovcenska Crna Gora) remained entirely independent (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). By the end of XV century Upper Zeta comprised Katunska, Rijecka, Crmnicka, and Ljesanska nahias, and the name of Crna Gora (Montenegro) was widely in use. The borders of Montenegro at the beginning of XVI century were as follows:

South-mountain Sutorman, hills between Crmnica and Pastrovici, than, Pastrovici, Majina, Brajici, and Pobora to the Adriatic sea near Grbalj;

West-from the Walls of Kotor town, above Dobrota, Ljuta, Orahovac, Drazevina, Perast, Risan and Ledenica;

North-over river Sitnica, than between Grahovo and Cuce and towards Pusti Lisac:

East-mountain Lastva, Garac, than hills over Susica, than below Komani to Ljeskopolje, than above Zabljak and Dodosi, and over the Lake of Shkodra (Skadarsko) to Sutorman (J.Jovanovic,1948, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, 1948, Cetinje, p. 60-61).

In 1514, Montenegro was proclaimed as the separate Crnogorski sandzaktat, by order of Sultan Bajazit II. For the first Sandzak-beg was chosen Ivan Crnojevic's son Skenderbeg, who was a convert to Islam, and governed until 1528. Despite Skenderbeg's emphasized cruelty, Turks did not have real power in Montenegro. The real power was in the hands of tribal (plemenskih) heads. From 1534 onwards, there is no more mentioning of Crnojevics in Crna Gora(J.Jovanovic,1948, Stvaranje Crnogorske Drzave i Razvoj Crnogorske Nacionalnosti, 1948, Cetinje, p. 54-55).

The year 1516 saw a shift in the constitution of Montenegro that many historians regard as having ensured its survival as an independent state. The last of the Crnojevic dynasty retired to Venice (he had married a Venetian) and conferred the succession upon the bishops of Cetinje. In Montenegro the position of vladika, as the prince-bishop was known, brought stability to that country's leadership. The link between church and state elevated it in the eyes of the peasantry, gave it an institutionalized form of succession that prevented its becoming a matter of contest between minor chieftains, and excluded the possibility of compromising alliances with the Turks.

In this period, vladikas came from different families and were elected by popular assemblies. According to St.Petar Cetinjski "The Vladika is an exemplary Montenegrin, as were the first Vladikas, and he cannot be but a born Montenegrin from one of the best Montenegrin families. A renown writer of a history of Montenegro noted: "The Vladikas were true spiritual and popular leaders of the Montenegrin people. The Vladika was a guardian of the people's spiritual strength and self-awareness, based on faith and the tradition of heroism and glorious ancestors...the Vladikas governed not by brute force but by purely moral influence, persuasion and prayers. And they all recognized the supreme authority of the Faith and the Church in which the Vladikas and the people were one. It was a special kind of spiritual brotherhood " (Rovinski, Crna Gora u proslosti i sadasnjosti, 1989, Cetinje, 352-3).

The institution of the theocratic sovereign and the individuals who occupied it through the centuries were key to Montenegro's independence, the Montenegrin national identity and unity, against the backdrop of tribal divisions. Surrounded by the Ottoman empire, nestled in the highlands around the Mount Lovcen, Montenegro kept its sovereignty through the leadership of the vladikas.

Therefore, diocese of Cetinje, having overcome the phase of a passive onlooker, took active, and even leading political role in the fight for liberation against Turks. At the beginning of XVII century, Montenegrins fought and won two important battles against Turks on Ljeskopolje (1603 and 1613), under the leadership and command of Cetinje's metropolitan, Rufim II Njegus (D. Zivkovic, Istorija Crnogorskog Naroda, Cetinje, 1989). This was the first time that the Turks were defeated under the leadership of a Cetinje's vladika, and that became tradition thereafter. At the same time this signify the beginning of the factual autocephalic activity of Montenegrin Orthodox Church, institutionalized in the diocese of Cetinje (D. Zivkovic, ibid.).

During XVII century, Montenegrins gained on confidence fighting the mightiest army of the time. Turkish forces suffered many defeats in the hands of Montenegrins who not only kept their independence but progressively reasserted their sovereignty over neighboring territories.

Nevertheless, this period was a difficult one for the small, landlocked Montenegrin state, which was almost constantly at war with the Ottoman Empire. Cetinje itself was captured in 1623, in 1687, and again in 1712. Three factors explain the failure of the Turks to subdue it completely:

the obdurate resistance of the population,
the inhospitable character of the terrain (in which a cynic may say that "a small army is beaten, a large one dies of starvation"), and
the adept use of diplomatic ties with Venice.
From 1519 until 1696 the position of vladika was an elective one, but in the latter year Danilo Petrovic was elected to the position (as Danilo I) with the significant novelty of being able to nominate his own successor. Although Orthodox clergy in general are permitted to marry, bishops are required to be celibate; consequently, Danilo passed his office to his nephew-founding a tradition that lasted until 1852.
During the reign of Danilo two important changes occurred in the wider European context of Montenegro: the expansion of the Ottoman state was gradually reversed, and Montenegro found in Russia a powerful new patron to replace the declining Venice. The replacement of Venice by Russian patronage was especially significant, since it brought financial aid (after Danilo visited Peter the Great in 1715), modest territorial gain, and, in 1789, formal recognition by the Ottoman Porte of Montenegro's independence as a state under Petar Petrovic Njegos (Peter I).

The ebbing of the Ottoman tide proved significant for Montenegrin religious identity, which appears to have been particularly unstable throughout the 18th century. In order to preserve their own identity and enforce the established theocratic, Orthodox state, Montenegrins organized the legendary mass slaughter of those who had converted to Islam on Christmas Eve 1709 (the "Montenegrin Vespers''). The decline of Turkish power help Montenegrins to gradually stabilize and eventually strengthen Montenegro's Orthodox identity. Catholicism retained a toehold in the area, and only recently have Catholics identified themselves as Croats.

The vladika's rule in this mountanious principality, which lasted until the middle of 18th century, when secular Western ideas intruded, is described in the literature as Europe's closest approximation to Tibet: a theocracy, ruled by celibate orthodox prince bishops selected from the boys of the Njegusi tribe, who lived in the stony valleys south of Cetinje.

 
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ZVEK ZIVI CETINJANIN
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December 17 2006, 3:56 PM 

Montenegro Under Vladikas from Petrovics' Dynasty (1697-1851) - Vladika Danilo

The end of XVII century was particularly merciless to Montenegrins. The loss of their influential vladika Visarion Bajica, and ruining and burning down of Cetinje monastery by the Turks, were accompanied with devastating illnesses and starvation. In a search for new vladika, Montenegrins refused to nominate candidates of Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic, as well as one of the Patriarch of Pec's Kalinik, who considered, at the time, that Cetinje's diocese was under his jurisdiction. Instead, in 1694, Montenegrins elected Sava Kaludjerovic from Ocinici to be the next vladika. He was from their own tribes and clans and was elected by the traditional popular assembly. His rule, however, was short-lived. After the death of Sava in 1697, the new vladika, chosen by popular acclamation was, former deacon (jeromonah) of Cetinje Monastery, Danilo Petrovic (Cetinjski ljetopis, Cetinje, 1962, p.48a). He came from the Njegusi clan, and was called Scepcevic after his father Scepan. Vladika Danilo Petrovic established the hereditary theocracy in the Petrovic family. Since Vladikas, as Orthodox Bishops, were celibate, the office of Vladika passed from uncle to nephew. This was a beginning of Petrovic family rule in Montenegro, and lasted until 1918, except for two short spells; (1767-1773 Scepan the Little, and 1781-1784 Arsenije Plamenac).

In order to become vladika Danilo needed to be appointed as a bishop by a Patriarch. Danilo refused to be appointed as a bishop by the Patriarch of Pec, Kalinik, since Kalinik was under Turkish influence. He was appointed as a bishop (vladika) by the Arsenije III Carnojevic, in Secuj (Hungary) in 1700, (''va bogom spasaemuju jeparhiju Skenderiskiju"). According to syncellus (sindjelija)of Arsenije III, Danilo received under his church power, apart from Montenegro and Brda, eparchies in Grbalj, Pastrovici, and Ljustica in Primorje, as well as Turkish towns of Antivari (Bar), Ulcinium (Ulcinj), Shkoder (Skadar), and Podgorica (Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje ).

Vladika Danilo worked particularly hard to unite Montenegrin tribes and clans. He believed that blood feuds and converts to Islam were as much dangerous for Montenegro as the Turkish forces themselves. In order to "cleanse Montenegro of Turkish spirit", and to "cleanse malice from sheepfold" so that "we can regain as a knights our freedom which is covered with scraps by the foreign dogs", Danilo organized execution of converts to Islam on the Christmas eve in 1709. The "Montenegrin Vespers" took place in Ceklici, Ceklin, Cetinje's clan, and everywhere where the converts lived (Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje).

After Turkey declared war to Russia in 1711, Petar the Great sent his confines to Balkan in order to encourage local Christians to rise against 'Peksian evil' who are "oppressors of the church and orthodox people". The 'gramata' sent by the czar to Danilo aroused Montenegrins enthusiasm for the plan, so that Vladika Danilo enthusiastically declared: "we are one tribe with Russia, and of one faith, so hopefully we may become neighbors. Thus, brother Montenegrins, arm yourselves together with myself, without pity for possessions or even life, I am ready to go to serve to Christian tzar and our ancestrally, as to liberate Christendom from the Turkish oppression, begging our too lenient God to help us and guide us" (J.Jovanovic, ibid.). However, soon after these first contacts of Montenegrins were made with Russia, the later accepted unfavorable peace treaty with Turkey and Danilo was left to defend his country against Turkish revenge on his own.

During the intrusion of Pasha Cuprilic into Montenegro, Vladika Danilo visited Petar the Great who gave first Russian aid to devastated Montenegro. The aid included 2700 ducats, and 13400 Rubles for the reconstruction of churches and monasteries and to help those who suffered most during Turkish intrusion. In addition the tzar declared that Russia would send 500 Rubles every third year as a help to Cetinje (Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje).

Following the examples of the previous vladikas, Danilo led Montenegrins in many battles against the Turks. He won a decisive, major battle at Carev Laz in Ljesanska Nahija, on July 17. 1712 . The Turkish army of around 50 000 men was defeated by 8 000 Montenegrins. The estimates of Turkish losses vary, but in any case losses were significant and amounted up to 20 000, whereas Montenegrin losses are said to be as low as 300 (Jovanovic, ibid.). The explanation for the such account of the battle are found in the fact that the terrain where battles are fought was entirely unfamiliar to Turkish forces, so they were slaughtered, making large piles of dead (lazine) and place is named after the battle -Carev Laz. This battle, although disputable among historians, is generally regarded as a landmark in the Montenegrin history of wars for independence(Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje).

Among the many defeats inflicted on Turks it is worth mentioning the battle on Trnjine in 1717, where, Montenegrin clans, Cuce, Bjelice, Cevljani, and Velestovci under vladika Danilo command, defeated Turks and captured around 70 of them, including beg Ljumovic and two brothers Cengics.

Vladika Danilo (in 1701) built the monastery on the site of the former court of Ivan Crnojevic. In 1724 the monastery was rebuilt after the Ahmet-Pasha burned it down. Since then, the monastery has been ruined and rebuilt many times but its basic structure has not changed.

During his life Danilo built up six churches and equip them with religious books and icons, predominantly with the money and presents received from Petar the Great. Vladika Danilo had significant success in uniting Montenegrin clans and towards the eradication of blood feud. For this purpose his most effective weapon was the use of curse for those who would not compromise.

 
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December 17 2006, 3:57 PM 

Scepan the Small (Scepan Mali) 1768-1774
Vladika Danilo was succeeded by Vladika Sava and Vladika Vasilije. Vladika Sava was predominantly occupied with clerical duties and did not enjoy as much charisma among tribal heads as his predecessor did. However, he managed to keep good relations with Russia, and to get considerable help from Petar's the Great successor empress Jelisaveta. During his trip to Russia his deputy Vasilije Petrovic gained considerable respect among clan heads by giving support to some Montenegrin tribes who were attacked by Turks. He was as much hated by the Venetians as he was by Turks. Vasilije was also active in trying to solicit Russian support for Montenegro. For that purpose he went three times to Russia where he died in 1766. He also wrote one of the earliest historical books ("History of Montenegro") on Montenegro.

During Christmas fasting in 1766, after the rumors spread by captain M. Tanovic, in Montenegro appeared, supposedly, the Russian tzar Petar III, who was believed to had been murdered by the lovers of Katherine II in 1762. Having affection for Russia, Montenegrins accepted the newcomer as their new tzar (1668) under the name of Scepan the Small (Scepan Mali). Vladika Sava conveyed to people Russian massage that Scepan is an ordinary crook, but the people believed the tzar rather than Sava. Following this event Scepan the Little put Sava under house arrest in Stanjevici monastery.

Scepan the Small was very cruel but respected and feared man during his reign. After realizing how much respect he commands, and that only him can keep Montenegrins together, Russian diplomat Dolgoruki abandoned his efforts to discredit Scepan giving him even financial support (Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje). In 1771 Scepan founded the permanent court comprised of most respected clan leaders, and stubbornly insisted on respect of the courts decision.

The importance of Scepan personality in uniting Montenegrins was realized soon after his assassination conducted by order of vizier of Skadar, Mahmut Pasha Busatlija. Montenegrin tribes once again engaged into blood feuding among themselves. Mehmed Pasha Busatlija tried to seize the opportunity and attacked Kuci with 30 000 troops. For the first time since Vladika Danilo, Kuci were helped by Piperi and Bjelopavlici, and defeated Turks twice in two years(Jagos Jovanovic, Stvaranje Crnogorske drzave i razvoj Crnogorske nacionalnosti, 1947, Obod-Cetinje).

After Scepan death, Governadur (title created by Danilo to appease Venetians) Jovan Radonjic, with a Venetian and Austrian help, tried to impose himself as a new ruler. However, in the assembly of Cetinje, after the death of vladika Sava (1781), for their vladika and "dobrociniteljnog starjesinu" Montenegrins chose achimandrite Petar Petrovic, who was a nephew of vladika Vasilije.

 
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