1. ^ a b c Gheg 2,779,246 + Tosk 2,980,000 + Arbereshe 80,000 + Arvanitika 150,000 = 5,989,246. (Ethnologue, 2005)
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/
2. ^ Of the Albanian Language - William Martin Leake, London, 1814.
3. ^ ANCIENT ALBANIA INHABITED BY ILLYRIANS-Chapter 36 : Turmoil In The Balkans - Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece Part Three - Albania
4. ^ Vladimir Orel (2000) links the word to an unattested Vulgar Latin *melettum, which is unconvincing, unless if from Greek. J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams (1997) have the word as a native development, from *melítiā, a form also considered to underly Greek mélissa; however, that form is believed to give Albanina mjalcë "bee", which is a native word and derivative of mjaltë "honey" (< Proto-Albanian *melita). In any case, the word does not appear to be native to Albanian.
5. ^ The word fat has both the meaning of "fate, luck" and "groom, husband". This may indicate two separate words that are homophones, one derived from Gothic and the other from Latin fātum; although, Orel (2000) sees them as the same word. However, it is worth noting that Albanian shortë "fate; spouse, wife" mirrors the dichotomy in meaning of fat but is considered to stem from one single source - Latin sortem "fate".
6. ^ Comrie, Bernard. "The Indo-European Linguistic Family: Genetic and Typological Perspectives". The Indo-European Languages. ed. Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat. London: Routledge, 1998.
7. ^ Labov, William. Principles of Linguistic Change, vol. 1: Internal Factors (Oxford, UK: Blackwell) 1994.
8. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. (London: Fitzroy Dearborn) 1997: 9.
9. ^ Sergent, Bernard. Les Indo-Européens : histoire, langues, mythes. Paris: Payot, 1995, p. 102-4.
10. ^ "Messapian Language". .
11. ^ "Messapian Language". .
12. ^ Orel, Vladimir. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
13. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. "Illyrian Language". Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. (London: Fitzroy Dearborn) 1997: 288.
14. ^ "Messapian Language". .
15. ^ Polomé, Edgar C. "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)". The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. III, part 1, eds. J. Boardman et al. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982: 866-888.
16. ^ "Centum-Satem isogloss". .
17. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams: 379.
18. ^ The Albanians migrated in the 14th century to Venise, in the 15th century to Ancona and Recanati (Marche), and to Sicily and all across the South.