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Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Albanian language .

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December 30 2007, 2:06 PM 

Historical considerations

Indeed, the center of the Albanians remained the river Mat, and in 1079 AD they are recorded in the territory between Ohrid and Thessalonika as well as in Epirus.

Furthermore, the major Tosk-Gheg dialect division is based on the course of the Shkumbin River, a seasonal stream that lay near the old Via Egnatia. Since rhotacism postdates the dialect division, it is reasonable that the major dialect division occurred after the christianization of the Roman Empire (4th c. AD) and before the eclipse of the East-West land-based trade route by Venetian seapower (10th c. AD).

References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 1300s, but without recording any specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "Formula e Pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), "Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spirit Senit." (I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit) recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durres in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period.

The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari [5] or missal, was written by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric, in 1555. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë. In 1635, Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin-Albanian dictionary.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian_language

 
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Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Albanian language .

Score 5.0 (1 person)
December 30 2007, 2:09 PM 

References

1. ^ a b c Gheg 2,779,246 + Tosk 2,980,000 + Arbereshe 80,000 + Arvanitika 150,000 = 5,989,246. (Ethnologue, 2005)
Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.
2. ^ Of the Albanian Language - William Martin Leake, London, 1814.
3. ^ ANCIENT ALBANIA INHABITED BY ILLYRIANS-Chapter 36 : Turmoil In The Balkans - Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and Greece Part Three - Albania
4. ^ Vladimir Orel (2000) links the word to an unattested Vulgar Latin *melettum, which is unconvincing, unless if from Greek. J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams (1997) have the word as a native development, from *melítiā, a form also considered to underly Greek mélissa; however, that form is believed to give Albanina mjalcë "bee", which is a native word and derivative of mjaltë "honey" (< Proto-Albanian *melita). In any case, the word does not appear to be native to Albanian.
5. ^ The word fat has both the meaning of "fate, luck" and "groom, husband". This may indicate two separate words that are homophones, one derived from Gothic and the other from Latin fātum; although, Orel (2000) sees them as the same word. However, it is worth noting that Albanian shortë "fate; spouse, wife" mirrors the dichotomy in meaning of fat but is considered to stem from one single source - Latin sortem "fate".
6. ^ Comrie, Bernard. "The Indo-European Linguistic Family: Genetic and Typological Perspectives". The Indo-European Languages. ed. Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat. London: Routledge, 1998.
7. ^ Labov, William. Principles of Linguistic Change, vol. 1: Internal Factors (Oxford, UK: Blackwell) 1994.
8. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. (London: Fitzroy Dearborn) 1997: 9.
9. ^ Sergent, Bernard. Les Indo-Européens : histoire, langues, mythes. Paris: Payot, 1995, p. 102-4.
10. ^ "Messapian Language". [1].
11. ^ "Messapian Language". [2].
12. ^ Orel, Vladimir. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
13. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. "Illyrian Language". Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. (London: Fitzroy Dearborn) 1997: 288.
14. ^ "Messapian Language". [3].
15. ^ Polomé, Edgar C. "Balkan Languages (Illyrian, Thracian and Daco-Moesian)". The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. III, part 1, eds. J. Boardman et al. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982: 866-888.
16. ^ "Centum-Satem isogloss". [4].
17. ^ Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams: 379.
18. ^ The Albanians migrated in the 14th century to Venise, in the 15th century to Ancona and Recanati (Marche), and to Sicily and all across the South.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian_language

 
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Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Albanian language .

Score 5.0 (1 person)
December 30 2007, 2:10 PM 

Bibliography

* Encyclopædia Britannica, edition 15 (1985). Article: Albanian language
* Huld, Martin E. Basic Albanian Etymologies. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers, 1984.
* Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
* Martin Camaj, Albanian Grammar, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden
* Orel, Vladimir. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albanian_language

 
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geti
(Login geti)

lol (again)

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November 17 2008, 9:29 AM 

talking too much whith your self it may domage some of your brain areas :p
coman man let someone talk not allways u and averyone can go on wiki no need of u to show us the link.

 
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