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Arbëreshë .

December 30 2007 at 2:34 PM
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Anonymous  (Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

 
Arbëreshë are an ethnic Albanian community living in southern Italy and Sicily. These people are descendants of Arvanites and Albanians from Labëria who settled in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries, after Skanderbeg died, and the Ottoman Empire was able to assume hegemony over the region..

The Arbëreshë were able to keep most of their identity so they can clearly be identified as Albanians. The Arbëreshë are mostly Byzantine Catholic with a Roman Catholic minority.[1]

Perhaps unsurprisingly, their language has been influenced more by Italian and Greek than have other Albanian dialects. The emigrations from Albania to Italy and Sicily have continued since the 15th century, and there are now significant communities of Albanians from Kosovo in the Arbëresh settlements, most notably Piana degli Albanesi in Sicily.

There are now significant communities of refugee Albanians from Kosovo in the Arbëresh settlements, the Italian government housing them there because of the language similarities.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Anonymous
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:35 PM 

Villages

The Arbëresh villages have two names, an Italian one and a native Arbërisht name by which villagers know the place. The Arbëresh villages are divided into small "islands" in the areas of the south of Italy:

* Abruzzo
o Province of Pescara
+ Villa Badessa (frazione of Rosciano): Badhesa
* Basilicata
o Province of Potenza
+ Barile: Barilli or Barili
+ Ginestra: Zhura
+ Maschito: Mashqiti or Mashkjiti
+ San Costantino Albanese: Shën Kostandini or Shen Kostandini
+ San Paolo Albanese: Shën Pali or Shen Pali
* Calabria
o Province of Catanzaro
+ Andali: Dandalli
+ Caraffa di Catanzaro: Garrafa or Garafa
+ Marcedusa: Marçidhuza
+ Vena di Maida (frazione of Maida): Vina
+ Zangarona (frazione of Lamezia Terme): Xingarona
o Province of Cosenza
+ Acquaformosa: Firmoza
+ Cariati: Kariati
+ Castroregio: Kastërnexhi
# Farneta (frazione of Castroregio): Farneta
+ Cerzeto: Qana
# Cavallerizzo (in the commune of Cerzeto): Kejverici or Kajverici
# San Giacomo di Cerzeto (in the commune of Cerzeto): Sënd Japku or Shën Japku
+ Cervicati: Çervikati
+ Civita: Çifti
+ Falconara Albanese: Fullkunara
+ Firmo: Ferma
+ Frascineto: Frasnita
# Eianina (frazione of Frascineto): Ejanina
+ Lungro: Ungra or Ungir
+ Mongrassano: Mungrasana
+ Plataci: Pllatëni or Pllatani
+ San Basile: Shën Vasili
+ San Benedetto Ullano: Shën Benedhiti
# Marri (frazione of San Benedetto Ullano): Allimarri
+ San Cosmo Albanese Strigari
+ San Demetrio Corone: Shën Mitri
# Macchia Albanese (frazione of San Demetrio Corone): Maqi
+ San Giorgio Albanese: Mbuzati
+ San Martino di Finita: Shën Mërtiri or Shën Murtiri
+ Santa Caterina Albanese: Picilia
+ Santa Sofia d'Epiro: Shën Sofia
+ Spezzano Albanese: Spixana
+ Vaccarizzo Albanese: Vakarici
o Province of Crotone
+ San Nicola dell'Alto (formerly San Nicola dell' Viola): Shën Kolli
+ Pallagorio: Puheriu or Puhëriu
+ Carfizzi: Karfici or Karfici
* Campania
o Province of Avellino
+ Greci: Katundi
* Molise
o Province of Campobasso
+ Campomarino: Këmarini or Kemarini
+ Montecilfone: Munxhufuni or Munçifuni
+ Portocannone: Porkanuni or Portkanùn
+ Ururi: Ruri or Rùri
* Puglia
o Province of Foggia
+ Casalvecchio di Puglia: Kazallveqi
+ Chieuti: Qefti or Kjéuti
o Province of Taranto
+ San Marzano di San Giuseppe: San Marcani or Shen Marzani
* Sicily
o Province of Palermo
+ Contessa Entellina: Kundisa
+ Piana degli Albanesi: Hora e Arbëreshëvet or Hora Sheshi Oána
+ Mezzojuso (also, Mezzoiuso): Munxhifsi
+ Palazzo Adriano: Pallaci
+ Santa Cristina Gela: Sëndastina or Shendestina

"Albanese" or "Albanesi" which occurs in several of the Italian names above is the Italian language word for "Albanian" or "Albanians", respectively. ("Albanese" is also a common surname among the Arbëresh and their overseas descendants.)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:36 PM 

Language

The language of the Arbëresh is called Arbërisht. There is no official political, administrative or cultural structure which represents the Arbëresh community. Arbërësh is not one of the group of minority languages that enjoy the special protection of the State under Article 6 of the Italian Constitution. At regional level, however, Albanian is accorded some degree of official recognition in the autonomy statutes of Calabria, Basilicata and Molise. In the case of Calabria, the region is to provide for recognition of the historical culture and artistic heritage of the populations of Albanian origin and to promote the teaching of the two languages in the places where they are spoken. Article 5 of the autonomy statute of Basilicata lays down that the regional authorities "shall promote renewed appreciation of the originality of the linguistic and cultural heritage of the local communities". Finally, the autonomy statute of the Molise region stipulates that the region "shall be the guardian of the linguistic and historical heritage and of the popular traditions of the ethnic communities existing in its territory and, by agreement with the interested municipalities, shall promote renewed appreciation of them". In certain communes the local authorities support cultural and linguistic activities promoted by the ethnic Albanian communities and have agreed to the erection of bilingual road signs [1]. There are associations that try to protect the culture, particularly in the Province of Cosenza. The Arbëresh language is used in some private radios and publications. The fundamental laws of the areas of Molise, Basilicata and Calabria make reference to the Arbëresh language and culture, but the Arbëresh people still feel that their culture is threatened. Nevertheless, the increase in training in the use of the written language has given some hope for continuity of this culture. It is important to note that the Arbëresh dialect is not a regional "dialect" of Italian, it is a dialect of Albanian (shqip) with Italian and Greek influences.

The Arbëresh language is of particular interest to students of modern Albanian language as it represents the sounds, grammar and vocabulary of pre-Ottoman Albania. In fact, Arbërisht was the name of the Albanian language used in Albania prior to the Turkish invasion in the 16th century; as was the region itself called Arbëria.

A Shqiptar (Albanian) listening to or reading Arbërisht is similar to a modern English speaker listening to or reading Shakespearean English.

The Italian linguist Mario Pei reported in The Story of Language that while a young man in Italy he had once boasted to a stranger that he knew and understood every Italian dialect. The stranger challenged Pei to understand the dialect of his own Italian village; Pei accepted, and understood absolutely nothing of what was said. The speaker proved to be a Arbëresh speaker, and enlightened Pei on the existence of Arbëresh.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:38 PM 

History

Prior to the Ottoman invasion of Albania, the Albanians were all called Arbëreshë. After some 300,000 people left and settled in Italy, these Italian-born Albanians continued to use the term Arbëresh whilst those in Albania called themselves Shqiptarë (compare the Albanian word Shqip, present in the local name for the country and the language).

The Arbëreshë originally lived in 'Morea' in the Epirus and in the Pindus mountains.[citation needed] They are descended from the proto-Albanian population dispersed throughout the western Balkans (see Arvanites). Between the 11th and 14th Centuries, the Arbëresh tribes moved in small groups towards the South of Greece (Thessaly, Corinth, Peloponnesus, Attica) where they founded colonies.[citation needed] Their military skill made them favourite mercenaries of the Serbs, Franks, Catalans, Italians and Byzantines.

The invasion of Greece by the Ottoman Turks in the 15th Century forced many Arbëreshë to emigrate to the south of Italy. Indeed, in 1448, King Alfonso V of Aragon, known as Magnanime (1396-1458), King of Naples, wanting to repress a rebellion of Italian lords, called on his ally, Gjergj Kastrioti i Krujës, known as "Skanderbeg", head of the Albanian Alliance. Several clans of Arbëreshë and Albanians were deployed to subdue the rebellion. Alfonso of Aragon rewarded them by giving them land in the province of Catanzaro. (see Stradioti)

In 1450, another force of Arbëresh intervened in Sicily and was established close to Palermo. Thus, the Arbëreshë contributed to the creation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

At the time of the War of succession of Naples, Ferdinand of Aragon again called on Arbëresh forces against the Franco-Italian armies, and Skanderbeg disembarked in 1461 in Brindisi. After having achieved success, the Arbëresh accepted land in Puglia, while Skanderbeg returned to organize Albanian resistance to the Turks, who had invaded Albania between 1468 and 1492. Part of the Arbëresh population emigrated to southern Italy, where the Kingdom of Naples granted other villages to them (Puglia, Molise, Calabria and Sicily).

A further wave of emigration, between 1500 and 1534, relates to Arbëreshë from central Greece. Employed as mercenaries by Venice, they had to evacuate the colonies of the Peloponnese with the assistance of the troops of Charles V, as the Turks had invaded that region.[citation needed] Charles V established these troops in Italy of the South to reinforce defense again the threat of Turkish invasion. Established in insular villages (which enabled them to maintain their culture until the 20th Century), Arbëreshë were, traditionally, soldiers for the Kingdom of Naples and the Republic of Venice, from the Wars of Religion to the Napoleonic invasion.

The final wave of Arbëreshë was in the 18th century with a group of Himariots (from the village of Himarë near Sarandë in southern Albania. These Himariots were fleeing a massacre instigated by Ali Pasha Tepelena, who has slaughtered 6000 Christian Albanians for refusing to convert to Islam. These refugees settled in Hora e Arbëreshëvet (Piana degli Albanesi) and subsequently founded the village of Sëndahstina (Santa Cristina Gelá).

The wave of migration from southern Italy to the Americas in 1900-10 depopulated approximately half of the Arbëreshë villages, and subjected the population to the risk of cultural disappearance, despite the beginning of a cultural and artistic revival in the 19th Century.

Since the end of communism in Albania there has been a wave of immigration into Arbëreshë villages by Kosovars and Shqiptar Albanians. Many differences are apparent between the new immigrants and the old diaspora in these villages, but there is still a sense of familiarity between them, who refer to each other as Jemi të gjithë Kushërinj edhe Gjaku jin i shprishur, ma na jemi arbëreshët e ata janë shkjiptarët. (we are all cousins and our blood is scattered, but we are the arbëreshë and they are the shqiptarë).

The main streets of many Arbëresh villages are named Via Giorgio Castriota after Skanderbeg.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:39 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:40 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:41 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:42 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:43 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:44 PM 


 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:45 PM 

References

1. ^ www.comunesantacristinagela.pa.it/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:46 PM 

External links

* (Italian) Mondo Arberesco
* (Italian) Piana degli Albanesi
* www.jemi.it: Jemi - which in Arbëresh means we are - is the biggest Arbëresh community on the web. Jemi contains video, audio and photo documents. Jemi is managed by the Eparchy of Lungro. (Italian)(Spanish) (English)

* http://sicilia.indettaglio.it/ita/comuni/pa/pianadeglialbanesi/pianadeglialbanesi.html
* (Italian) Centro Studi Genealogia Arbëreshe — a genealogical site focused on the Arbëreshë in Cosenza in Calabria.
* http://www.eparchiapiana.it/ the official site of the Arbëresh Byzantine Church, based in Piana degli Albanesi, has 3 short videos about the Epiphany festival in the village.
* http://www.arberesh.net
* http://www.arbitalia.it
* http://www.arberia.us
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arb%C3%ABresh

 
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Re: Arbëreshë .

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December 30 2007, 2:47 PM 


 
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