<< Previous Topic | Next Topic >>Return to Index  

Illyrian Language !!

January 2 2008 at 10:28 AM
Score 5.0 (1 person)
Anonymous  (Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

 
The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans [1] in former times by ethnic groups identified as Illyrians: Delmatae, Pannoni, Illyrians, Autariatẽt, Taulanti.

Some sound-changes and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because many writings in Illyrian are lost, it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family. Because of the uncertainty, most sources provisionally place Illyrian on its own branch of Indo-European, though its relation to other languages, ancient and modern, continues to be studied.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.Respond to this message   
AuthorReply
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:29 AM 


 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:29 AM 

Language affinity

Further than belonging to the Indo-European language family, the relation of Illyrian to other ancient and modern languages is still being examined by scholars. Today, the main source of authoritative information about the Illyrian language consists of a handful of Illyrian words cited in classical sources, and numerous examples of Illyrian anthroponyms, ethnonyms, toponyms and hydronyms. A grouping of Illyrian with the Messapian language has been proposed for about a century, but remains an unproven hypothesis. The theory is based on classical sources, archaeology, as well as onomastic considerations. Messapian material culture bears a number of similarities to Illyrian material culture. Some Messapian anthroponyms have close Illyrian equivalents.

A relation to the Venetic language and Liburnian language, once spoken in northeastern Italy and Liburnia respectively, was also proposed, but this theory has been dropped now.

Some scholars believe the modern Albanian language to be descended from Illyrian. [2] Only a few Illyrian items have been linked to Albanian, and these remain tentative or inconclusive for the purpose of determining a close relation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:30 AM 

Illyrian - Albanian

The relationship between Illyrian and Albanian is much debated. Some connection seems likely, but the nature of the relationship is disputed beyond a consensus that both languages were spoken in the same area.

In 1709 G. W. Leibnitz called Albanian "the language of the ancient Illyrians". Another supporter of this theory is G. Meyer; the Albanian language was for him the most recent stage of one of the Illyrian dialects.

Some current Albanian anthroponomy also seems to have its Illyrian correspondent: eg the Albanian dash "ram" would correspond the Illyrian "Dassius, Dassus"; also the Albanian bardhë "white" would correspond to "Bardus, Bardullis, Bardyllis" which are different Latin written names to imitate the Illyrian sound. And some ethnonyms of Illyrian tribes also seem to have their Albanian equivalents, e.g., the name Dalmatians may correspond to Albanian delmë "sheep"[3]; also the name of Dardanians may correspond to Albanian dardhë "pear" [4]. It should be pointed out, however, that these words present a number of etymological problems, namely incongruent sound correspondences [5].
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:31 AM 

Illyrian place-name/ Albanian/ Observation
Ulkinium (Ulcinj, Montenegro)/ ujk "wolf" (archaic ulk) + -inj "plural or collective ending" /IE *(w)ulkos "wolf" + inium "collective suffix"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:33 AM 

Outside influences

The Ancient Greek language would have become an important external influence on Illyrian-speakers who occupied lands adjacent to ancient Greeks.

Invading Celts who settled on lands occupied by Illyrians brought the Illyrians into contact with the Celtic languages. Intensive contact may have happened in what is now Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia. Because of this intensive contact, and because of conflicting classical sources, it is unclear whether some ancient tribes were Illyrian or Celtic (see for example Scordisci). Thracians and Paionians also occupied lands populated by Illyrians, bringing Illyrians into contact with the Thracian language and Paionian language.

Yet it was not Greek, Celtic, Thracian, or Paionian, but Latin that would come to displace Illyrian above the Jireček line. The Romans conquered all the lands in which Illyrian was spoken, and it is quite possible that Illyrian faded early in the Common era, perhaps even before the Slavic invasion of the Balkans. However, this is disputed by other scholars and linguists who maintain that the living Albanian language is a surviving Illyrian language.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
Anonymous
(Login Xenophon_Albanoi)

Re: Illyrian Language !!

Score 5.0 (1 person)
January 2 2008, 10:34 AM 

Illyrian words

Since there are no Illyrians texts, sources for identifying Illyrian words have been identified by Hans Krahe[6] as of four kinds: inscriptions, glosses of Illyrian words in Classical texts, names— including proper names (mostly inscribed on tombstones), toponyms and river names— and Illyrian loanwords in other languages. The last category has proved particularly contentious. The names occur in sources that range over more than a millennium, including numismatic evidence, as well as posited original forms of placenames (Krahe 1955). The inscriptions, some three hundred, are largely in Messapic, an ancient (disputedly) Illyrian language spoken in parts of Apulia: Illyrian inscriptions are limited to a votive inscription on a ring found near Skutari (Krahe 1955) and perhaps a spearhead found at Kovel[7]

Only a few Illyrian words are cited in Classical sources by Roman or Greek writers, but these glosses, provided with translations, provide a core vocabulary. Only four identified with an ethnonym Illyrii or Illurioí; others must be identified by indirect means:

* abeis, "snakes"; cf. Latin anguis, Old High Germ unc, Lith angìs, Gk óchis "snake", echis "viper", Toch auk "snake", Arm auj, Russ už, Skt áhis, Av aži
* bagaron, "warm"; cf. Phrygian bekos "bread", Eng bake, Lat focus "hearth", Irish goba "blacksmith", Gk phōgein "to roast", Armenian bosor "red", bots "flame".
* brisa, "husk of grapes"
* deuádai "satyrs"; cf. Skt dhūnoti "he shakes", Gk thýein "to rage, seethe", théeion "sulfur vapor", Eng dizzy, Old English dwæs "foolish", Paeonian Dýalos "Dionysos", Latin furere "to rage", belua "wild animal", Old Irish dásacht "rage, fury", Lith dvesiù "to perish, die (animals)", Hitt tuhhai "to gasp"
* mantía, "bramblebush"; cf. archaic Alb mand, mandë, mod. Alb mën, man "mulberry bush"
* rhinos, "fog, mist"; cf. Old Alb ren, mod. Alb re, rê "cloud"
* sabaia, sabaium, sabaius, "a type of beer"; akin to Eng sap, Lat. sapere "to taste", Skt sabar "sap, juice, nektar", Avest. višāpa "having poisonous juices", Arm ham, Greek apalós "tender, delicate", Old Church Slavonic sveptǔ "bee's honey"
* sibina (Lat.), sibyna (Lat.), sybina (Lat.); σιβυνη (Gk.), σιβυνης (Gk.), συβινη (Gk.), ζιβυνη (Gk.): "a hunting spear", generally, "a spear", "pike"; an Illyrian word according to Festius, citing Ennius; is compared to συβηνη (Gk.), "flute case", a word found in Aristophanes' Thesmophoriazusai; the word appears in the context of a barbarian speaking. Akin to Persian zôpîn, Arm səvīn "spit"
* sica, "knife, dagger or sword"; cf. Alb thikë "knife", Lat cōs, cōtis "whetstone", Eng hone, Old Irish cath "wise, sharp-minded", Skt śitá "sharp", Arm sur "sharp", srem "to sharpen", Avestan saēni "pot", sal "slab, anvil"

Some additional words have been extracted by linguists from toponyms, hydronyms, anthroponyms, etc.:

* Bindus "river god"; cf. Old Irish banne "drop", Skt bindú, vindú "drops, gob, spot", possibly Lat fōns Bandusiae
* Bosona, "Bosna river", literally "running water": IE *bheg, bhog "to run"; cf. OSl bĕžati "to flee, run", Lith bé(.)gti "to flee", Gk phébesthai "to flee", phóbos "fear", Eng beck "brook, stream", MIr búal "flowing water", Hindi bhāg "to flee"
* mons Bulsinus: IE *bhl.kos; cf. Eng balk, Middle Irish blog "piece, fragment", Latin fulcrum "bedpost", Gk phálanx "trunk, log", Lith balžiena "crossbar", Serb blazína "roof beam", Skt bhuríjāu "cart arms"
* Derbanoí, Anderva: IE *derv; cf. Eng tree, Albanian dru "wood", Old Church Slavonic drĕvo "tree", Welsh derw "oak", Gk dóry "wood, spear", drýs "oak, tree", Lith derva "pine wood", Hittite taru "tree, wood', Thracian taru "spear", Skt dru "tree, wood", daru "wood, log"
* Dizēros, Andízētes: IE *digh; cf. Eng dough, Gk teîchos "wall", Latin fingere "to shape, mold", Old Irish com-od-ding "he builds, erects", Old Russian dĕža "kneading trough", Armenian dez "heap", Skt dehah "body, form"
* Domator, personal name; cf. Old Irish damnaid "he binds, breaks a horse", dam "ox", Eng tame, dialectal Germ Zamer "ox not under the yoke", Alb dem "young bull", Lat domāre "to tame", domitor "tamer", Gk dámnēmi "to break in", dámalos "calf", Skt dāmyáti "he is tame; he tames"
* loúgeon, "a pool"; cf. Alb lag "to wet, soak, bathe, wash" (< PA *lauga), lëgatë "pool" (< PA *leugatâ), lakshte "dew" (< PA *laugista); further akin to Lith liűgas "marsh", OSl luža "pool", Thracian Lýginos "river name" [8]
* Naro: IE *nor; cf. Lith nãras "diving duck", Russ norá "hole", SCr po-nor "abyss"
* Nedinum: IE *ned; cf. Skt nadas "roarer"
* Oseriates, "lakes"; akin to Old Church Slavonic ozero (Serb-Croat jezero), Latvian ezers, OPruss assaran, Gk Akéroun "river in the underworld"
* lacus Pelso, "deep": IE *pels; cf. Czech pleso "deep place in a river, lake"
* Skenóbardos: IE *skeno-bhardhos; cf. Eng shine and beard
* tergitio, "merchant"; cf. Old Church Slavonic trĭgĭ (Serb-Croat trg) "market", Old Russian tǔrgǔ "market", Latvian tirgus[9]
* Teuta, Teutana: IE *teuta-, "people"; cf. Lith tauta "people", German Deutsch "German", Old English theod "people", Old Irish tuath "clan", Umbrian tota "people", Oscan touto "city", Hittite tuzzi "army"
* Tómaros, mountain in Eastern Pindus; cf. Old Irish temel "darkness", Middle Irish teimen "dark grey", OHG demar "darkness", dinstar "dark", Lat tenebrae "darkness", temere "by chance, rashly", Skt tamas "darkness", tamsrah "dark", Old Church Slavonic tima "darkness"
* Volcos, river name in Pannonia; cf. Old Irish folc "heavy rain, wet weather", Welsh golchi "to wash", Eng welkin "cloud", Old High Germ welk "moist", Old Church Slavonic vlaga "moisture, plant juice", vǔlgǔkǔ "wet"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illyrian_languages

 
Scoring disabled. You must be logged in to score posts.
 
  Respond to this message   
  << Previous Topic | Next Topic >>Return to Index  
Find more forums on Political RelationsCreate your own forum at Network54
 Copyright © 1999-2017 Network54. All rights reserved.   Terms of Use   Privacy Statement