Tutorial I wrote a while back re True/False. Hope it helps.

by Moneo (no login)


Testing conditions or switches for TRUE or FALSE can be confusing, so first let's look at some QBasic/QuickBasic (QB) rules:

RULE #1: A boolean expression: any expression that evaluates as follows:
* to TRUE (nonzero)
* to FALSE (zero)

RULE #2: Conditional statements like IF, DO...LOOP, WHILE...WEND test a boolean expression and will execute, branch or loop based on whether the boolean expression is TRUE (nonzero) or FALSE (zero).

RULE #3: However, when a boolean expression is used as a value, assigned to a variable or output in any way, QB will convert the result, after evaluation, to TRUE (-1) or FALSE (0).

if x then print "is true" .....Will print because x is TRUE (nonzero)
if x-2 then print "is true" ...Will not print because x-2 is FALSE (zero)
if x-5 then print "is true" ...Will print because x-5 is -3 is TRUE (nonzero)
result = (x=2) ...............result will be -1 (TRUE) because x=2 is true
result = (x>0) ...............result will be -1 (TRUE) because x>0 is true
result = (x<0) ...............result will be 0 (FALSE)


if switch then goto switchon

The boolean expression containing the variable "switch" is evaluated for zero or non-zero in accordance with Rule #2.
* If the result is non-zero, the condition is considered TRUE, and the goto takes place.
* If the result is zero, the condition is considered FALSE, and the goto does not take place.

Let me stress a point regarding the value of "switch". The above IF would do the goto under many nonzero circumstances, including:
* A value of -1
* A value of 1

The fact that the IF works for -1 or 1 tricks some people into thinking that either of these can always be considered as TRUE. It depends, see Rules #2 and #3 above.


Here's a straightforward line of code. If the code is 1 then we want to increment count1 by 1.
if code=1 then count1=count1+1

A clever, but confusing alternative is:
count1 = count1 - (code1=1)

Here's how it works. The boolean expression (code1=1) is evaluated and the result is either TRUE (-1) or FALSE (0), in accordance with Rule #3.
* If it's TRUE (-1), count1 will be incremented because -(-1) is +1.
* If it's FALSE (0), count1 will not be incremented because -(0) is 0.

This kind of cleverness dates back to assembly language where IF-type conditional logic was avoided. With today's languages, you don't need to be so cute. You'll only be confusing yourself or the next programmer doing maintenance.


The following is the code I use to determine if a year is leap year. The resultant variable Isleap is set to TRUE (-1) or FALSE (0).

IsLeap = (Y MOD 4 = 0 AND Y MOD 100 <> 0) OR (Y MOD 400 = 0)

The logic is fairly straightforward following the standard definition of leap year which says:
If the year is evenly divisible by 4 and not divisible by 100,
or if the year is evenly divisible by 400,
then it is a leap year.

The code has two boolean expressions enclosed in quotes to comply with the definition. So, if either expression is true, it is a leap year.

Here's another implementation of the same logic which at first glance looks a little simpler.

Isleap = (Y MOD 4 = 0) - (Y MOD 100 = 0) + (Y MOD 400 = 0)

This code, which also works by the way, has three boolean expressions enclosed in quotes. Taking into account that TRUE is -1 and FALSE is 0, arithmetic is performed on the results of these expressions to produce a final TRUE/FALSE condition.

It took me a while to understand this code, and I tested it with a little program. I'll let you figure it out. Again, the second version of the code looks simpler, but I consider it more complicated. Like Albert Einstein said: "We have to make things simple, but not simpler."


1) Be aware of Rule #2 when writing conditional statements, that is, TRUE is nonzero and FALSE is zero.

2) If you're going to use or assign the results of boolean expessions, remember that TRUE is -1 and FALSE is 0.

3) If you're going to use switches, avoid using 1 for on, and 0 for off, even if that seems to make more sense to you. Use -1 for on, and 0 for off.

The recommended and more explicit way of handling switches is as follows:

CONST TRUE = NOT(FALSE) ..... this is equal to -1

if somecondition then switch is TRUE

if switch = TRUE then goto swon
if switch = FALSE then goto swoff

To flip a switch, turn it off if on, or turn it on if off:

switch = not(switch)


Posted on Oct 14, 2010, 12:33 PM

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Response TitleAuthor and Date
*"enclosed in quotes"? I don't see any quotes.A ninny mouse on Oct 16
 Re: *"enclosed in quotes"? I don't see any quotes.Moneo on Oct 24
  * Moneo, he is just ACTING like a NINNY, get it? ninny...:-)Clippy on Oct 25
rule #3Michael Calkins on Oct 20
 Re: rule #3Moneo on Oct 21
  Re: rule #3Michael Calkins on Oct 27
   Re: rule #3 moreMoneo on Oct 29
    Constants add meaning to numbers.Artelius on Oct 29

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