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Victor Freidman fallacies

January 3 2009 at 2:36 PM
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akritas  (Login akritas2)
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This article is a response to Professor Victor Friedman that is being considered by some people as one of the foremost experts on Balkan languages and in his thesis as about the so-called Macedonian language.

[linked image]


At the outset, it appears that the Greeks reject outright the existence of a "Macedonian nation", a "Macedonian language" and even a "Macedonian republic". A more careful study of Greek views, however, would reveal that the Greeks do not dispute the existence of a nation, a language or a republic after 1944, but they rather refute the legitimacy of the appropriation of the Macedonian name for defining a Slavic population in the Balkans. For the Greeksas for the Bulgariansthe name "Macedonian" is merely a geographical term that applies equally to any native of the wider Macedonian region, irrespective of his or her national identity. Unlike the Bulgarians, for the Greeks the name by itself is a cherished historical feature, an inseparable element of Greek cultural heritage for well over two and a half millennia. Understandably, it is highly unlikely to expect them to consent to the arbitrary appropriation of the Macedonian name by a Slavic people across their frontiers.

Mr Freidman is one of this outsiders. Lets' see what are the fallacies of the Professor.



Fallacy 1 _The usage of the term Macedonian Language

The language spoken by the majority of the Slavic people of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) which they have quite arbitrarily called Macedonian, is a Slavic dialect, so closely resembling Bulgarian and Serbian, that according to linguistic principles it can hardly be considered an independent language at a par with the other two. [1]

The linguistic frontiers on the Serb and Bulgarian sides are lost in the fluidity of equally divided linguistic groups on either side and are impossible to determine. The so-called «Macedonian» dialect is, in fact, an intermediate stage between Bulgarian and Serb. As someone moves towards Bulgaria, the Serb elements grow rarer while the Bulgarian elements multiply and vice versa. For that reason, just as the Skopje region was the apple of discord between the politicians of Bulgaria and Serbia, so its language has become an object of dispute. Serbian linguists stress its affinities with the Serb language; Bulgarians emphasize its similarities with Bulgarian. Both are anxious to prove that it is really an extension of their respective languages.

This is the recent in the frames of the 20th century language of the FYROM State (created, as it is known, during the era of Tito in 1944). This is the Bulgarian language (the first people in the region are Bulgarians and Bulgarians have always claimed on this lands, which their consider their won in fact people living in the region used to call themselves Bugari! This language is artificially Serbianized (!), i.e. some lexis and grammatical elements of the surrounding regions, where the Serbian language was spoken, were added to it so that to lower the Bulgarian language element and adopt the Serbian language form, which is the requirement of Titos United Serbia, the Yugoslavian Republic.

Thus, the Slavic language in FYROM is a Serbian-Bulgarian language, a Bulgarian language that has been artificially Serbianized, adopted as official language because of obvious reasons which the Bulgarians call Kolisevski. The Skopje citizens themselves gave this language, the Serbian-Bulgarian, the name Macedonian, to avoid future claims on behalf of Bulgaria and to also hide the Bulgarian origin of the language. In addition, to usurp a right over a name (Macedonian), which bears prestige and historical notion (by fake identification with the greatness and world known name Macedonia of Alexander the Great) and finally because their impudence has no limit [2]

Finally I want to add something that Mr Victor Friedman avoided to mention in his works regarding this language. In the early years there were many difficulties in securing wide usage of the still-changing new Slavic language of the FYROM. Writings of the old Bulgarian revolutionaries (Macedonian according the FYROM historiography) and often even speeches and articles by party leaders had to translated or adjusted before being used. [3]

Why ?
Is it true that Bulgarians doesnt have any problem as about the reading ?



Fallacy 2_The usage of the Aegean macedonia as geographical definition.


Friedman re-produces this known irredentist term in many articles and encycopedias. [4]


[linked image]


"Aegean Macedonia"is a Slavic Macedonian irredentist term used to refer to the region of Macedonia in Greece, in the context of a 'United Macedonia'. The origins of the term seem to be rooted in the 1940s but its modern usage is widely considered ambiguous and irredentist. The term has occasionally appeared on maps circulated in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), which envisioned Greek Macedonia (referred to as "Aegean Macedonia") as part of a "Greater Macedonia", and is regarded as a challenge of the legitimacy of Greek sovereignty over the area.[5]


There is also one more addition about this fallacy and concern the Vardar region. The Historical and geographical Macedonian borders until 1944 never included the middle and North FYROM. At the past identified as Kosovo, Vardar, South Moesia and Dardania. The entrance of these regions in Macedonia is clearly a political choice of the Yugoslav Communists first and USA lately.


Fallacy 3_The selective usage of his sources.


Victor Freidman writes
The first two writers to publish books in a language based on Macedonian dialects were Hadzi Joakim KrEovski (d. 1820), who used a language based on the Kratovo-Kriva Palanka dialects of northeastern Macedonia, and his somewhat younger contemporary HadZi Kiril PejEinovik (c.. 1770-1845), who wrote in the Tetovo dialect, with fewer Church Slavonicisms than Joakim (Lunt 1953:336)'Both these writers called their language Bulgarian, but since their dialects were Macedonian, they can be considered as the first to publish books in some form of Macedonian (Koneski 1967a:88). [6]

In this abstract we have the oxymoron that when the 19th cent writers mentioned that their own language is Bulgarian, Mr Freidman support that the earliest books were written in Macedonian dialects and uses as his source the Slavic Macedonian Blaze Koneski.

Who is Blaze Konezski ?

In Titos Yugoslav federations and in order to sever the linguistic bonds between the "Macedonians" and Serbs and Bulgarians, a new language was fabricated and touted as a separate Macedonian language, the language, it was said, of Alexander the Great. In contrast to Alexander's language, which had an alphabet (Greek), the present "Macedonian" language did not have an alphabet until 1945.To complete the deception; Tito commissioned the linguist Blago Konev (he changed his name later to Blaze Koneski) to devise an alphabet. Koneski modified the Serbian version of the Cyrillic alphabet and called it the "Macedonian alphabet". This is the source of Mr Victor Friedman, a propagandist linguist that changed his name and a Serbian alphabet in order to de-bulgarize his past.

Of course Victor Friedman avoids using alternatives sources in his work in the Slavic language of the FYROM such us Greek, Serbians and Bulgarian professors.

Fallacy 4_The usage of the Macedonian term as ethnicity.

I will begin my analysis with the term English term "Macedonian" and its meaning: A Macedonian according to several sources [7][8] is a native or inhabitant of the (Ancient or Modern) Macedonian region. I was born in Thessaloniki and my family's origin can be traced from that city, as well as Eastern Macedonia 150 years ago.

So am I Macedonian according to Mr Victor Friedmans historical and linguist method process?


According to the known English dictionaries I am. But I am not Macedonian speaker and ethnical according to Friedman thesis.



Some Remarks related to the FYROM historiography.

FYROMacedonian historiography and the political system wanted to keep the separate political and national existence to this newly-established republic. As we know, the main characteristics of a nation are: unity of country (with the meaning of common fatherland) and of political organisation, language, religion and heritage, which are joined by a common past, common consciousness - characteristics which alone are not enough or indeed necessary but which in combination create the separate identity of a nation. They tried to keep these characteristics to the new "Republic of Macedonia". They wanted, in other words, to fabricate a nation. By means of their studies and publications they attemped to reconstruct and re-interpret historical data in order to fulfil their objectives. Maria Nystazopoulou Pelekidou writes with regards to this:

Their first aim is to cut off every link between the so-called "Macedonians" and the Bulgarians, as a well as the Serbs, and to convince the people that they belonged to a separate Slavic nation, the "Macedonian" one.

The second aim is to eliminate the Greek character of Macedonia and Macedonian history; and this would be achieved by minimizing the Greek presence in this region and misinterpreting or falsifying their role, specifically the cultural and intellectual contribution of Hellenism, the orthodox Greek clergy and Greek schools.

The third aim is to search for, fabricate and project the historical development of the so-called "Macedonian people", so as to prove the separate national identity of the "Macedonians", as well as their cohesion and continuity from ancient times until today.

The fourth aim is to create a Great Idea, which would bring awareness to the masses. So the historians of Skopje started declaring that Macedonia, as a whole, was a Slavic country both in its historical tradition and its ethnic composition. For this reason, it had to be united and form a unified state. [9]


Epilogue

Unfortunately many of the authoritative views of the American academic establishment does not follow Arthur Schlesinger advice about the purpose of the history in theirs writings:

The purpose of history is to promote not group self-esteem, but understanding of the world and the past, dispassionate analysis, judgment and perspective, respect for divergent cultures and traditions, and unflinching protection for those unifying ideas of tolerance, democracy, and human rights that make free historical inquiry possible. [10]

Any attempt to question the authenticity of the Macedonian history (part of the Greek civilization) is of direct concern even to people who ordinarily have little interest in the remote past. I will suggest that arguing that writers as Victor Friedman offer a valid interpretation of history and the linguistics is similar to being comfortable with the notion that the earth is flat . But although such new and daring hypotheses about the past can easily win adherents, especially when they favor present cultural and political aspirations, everyone should be aware that there are real dangers in allowing history to be rewritten, even for culturally useful purposes. Even though it may inspire students with pride and self-confidence, writing and teaching such ethnic histories, each with its own brand of "ethnic truth," sanctions the invention of falsehoods.


Notes

[1]- Andriotis, The Federative Republic Of Skopje and Its Language, EMS, 1966
[2]-FYROM Linguistic forgeries:The «Macedonian» language of the Skopje and the Slav Macedonian minority, Academic George Babiniotis ,newspaper VIMA, Sunday 3 Aug 2008
[3]-Parker, Yugoslav Communism and the Macedonian Question, page156, 1966
[4]-a. Macedonian Language and Nationalism During the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,1996 b. International Journal of the Socilogy of the Language 52, 1985.
[5] -"The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World", Loring M. Danforth, p. 37
[6] - Macedonian Language and Nationalism During the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, 1976
[7] -http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Macedonian
[8] - http://www.thefreedictionary.com/macedonian
[9]-- Maria Nystazopoulou-Pelekidoy, The Macedonian Question, 1992
[10]- Arthur Schlesinger , The Disuniting of America, page 99

source:http://modern-macedonian-history.blogspot.com/2009/01/victor-freidman-fallacies.html


    
This message has been edited by akritas2 on Jan 3, 2009 2:41 PM


 
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Arxileas
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 5 2009, 5:37 AM 

The language spoken by the majority of the Slavic people of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) which they have quite arbitrarily called Macedonian, is a Slavic dialect, so closely resembling Bulgarian and Serbian, that according to linguistic principles it can hardly be considered an independent language at a par with the other two. [1]



^ Very true. Here is an example of the alphabet, now look at the similarities with Bulgarian and Serbian alphabets;



[linked image]



Good article by the way Akritas !!!


    
This message has been edited by Arxileas on Jan 5, 2009 5:39 AM


 
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akritas
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 5 2009, 11:59 AM 

Thanks Arxi.!!happy.gif

 
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Mac Mako
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 5 2009, 5:12 PM 

Many East and South Slavic languages, and almost all languages in the former Soviet Union, use the Cyrillic alphabet. What the similarities are is that not all letters in the Cyrillic alphabet are used in every language that is written with it.

 
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Mac Mako
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 5 2009, 5:22 PM 

Victor Friedman once said:

One meeting with a Balkan leader taught me that I get a headache when I am lied to for more than 30 minutes at a stretch, he said, declining to elaborate. In two other countries, all the leaders have pursued basically the same foreign policy with respect to one of their neighbors regardless of the regime. In yet another country, change of regimes has allowed for some improvements, but a combination of internal and external instability threatens to eviscerate the very concept of leader.

http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/981112/friedman.shtml

 
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Niklianos
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 6 2009, 9:12 PM 

Mac Mako,

what you refer to is only the written language and has nothing to do with the spoken language. The spoken language of the people of FYROM is closest to Bulgarian than any other Slavic Dialect. The dialect skoken in the border regions between Bulgaria, FYROM and Serbia is the same dialect and spoken in all 3 countries.

 
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Mac Mako
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 7 2009, 12:57 AM 

You know nothing about it. Your supposed knowledge is driven by politics and partiality. Thanks anyway.

 
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Niklianos
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 7 2009, 5:53 PM 

I beg to differ! You are the one driven by partiality because you are the one who is making a statement that was partially incorrect! I have a degree in Anthropology and work professionally as an Archaeologist and know a thing or two about history and research. You should look up in you MAK forum a posting I made about the border dialect between Bulgaria and FYROM! Learn a thing or two before you question others! If you cannot locate it I will post it for you.

 
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Mac Mako
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 7 2009, 6:01 PM 

Yeah, good for you?

 
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Niklianos
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 9 2009, 12:19 AM 

Is that all you have to respond with? Did you look up the spoken dialect of the border region?

 
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akritas
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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January 25 2009, 12:40 PM 

OUR ANSWERS TO PROFESSOR VICTOR FRIEDMANS ALLEGATIONS ON MACEDONIA


Dr. Victor Friedman the so-called expert linguist from the University of Chicago in his interview with Christopher Deliso of Balkanalysis.com on Macedonia, states:

its been that way ever since modern Macedonians began to call themselves Macedonians. The Greeks have been denying the existence of its Macedonian minority since acquiring Greek Macedonia at the Treaty of Bucharest following the Second Balkan War (1913)

Even though Dr. Friedman projects an aura of expertise as a Professor of Slavic and Balkan Linguistics, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of Chicago, his answers to Christopher Deliso makes one wonder about his basic Balkan historical knowledge. It is therefore compelling to remind the good Professor of some historical facts regarding the Balkans.

The history of the FYROM is very recent. It started approximately in the fifth century AD. Originally the southern Slavs were called Venedi, but the Byzantines changed their name to Sklavini when they migrated to the south part of the Balkans because the Slavs established alliances, or unions amongst themselves called sklavinije. These Sklavinije asserted as their high commanders a regular hierarchy of princes such as Hatson, Akamir and Prvud. In the middle of the 5th century AD the southern Slavs crossed the Carpathian Mountains and settled in the former Roman provinces of Panonia (modern day Hungary) and Dacia (modern day Romania). The first Slavic and Turkic tribes of the Bulgarians started attacking the Balkan areas jointly in the 5th century AD. In the beginning, they robbed the Byzantine population, devastating the countryside and then returning to their bases. Former FYROM President Gligorov verified the above with his statement: according to the history of the Macedonian people the prevailing view is that we are Slavs. We came from the Balkan [Mountains] in the sixth, seventh century and settled on the land called Macedonia. Even so, this is not what gives the identity of our people (Kiro Gligorov, Skopje, 2000, 354). Lasting settlements of Slavs in parts of the Macedonian area began at the end of the sixth century. Up to the middle of the seventh century the seven Slavic tribes, namely Draguviti, Bereziti, Sagudati, Rinhini, Strumljani, Smoljani, Velegeziti, Milingi, Ezerites, Timoani, Abodrini, and Moravijani united in tribal unions, thus turning into an important political and ethnic factor in the history of the Balkans. They are the ancestors of the current Slavic population of the FYROM. According the Yugoslavian Military Encyclopedia (ed. 1974) the Timoèani, Abodrini, and Moravijani, at present, are part of the Serbian Nation.

The terms Vardar Macedonia, Macedonia of Pirin and Aegean Macedonia used by the citizens of the FYROM were tricks by the former Yugoslavia to serve effectively its aggressive and political purposes. There are no official or unofficial records or statistics, according to which the FYROM inhabitants are called Macedonians. As all ethnologist scientists agree no separate Macedonian ethnos ever existed in history, (Arnold van Gennep: Traité comparatif des nationalités. Paris, 1922. A, 212;). The expression Macedonian nation is the creation of Pan-Slavism, used first by the Russian N. S. Zarganko in 1890, having the meaning of a nonexistent separate ethnicity being the Trojan horse for the Slavic aggression against Greece. Suddenly and out of nowhere a Macedonian ethnos was created in Southern Yugoslavia, known by names such as South Serbia and Peoples Republic of Macedonia. The Manifesto of Krushevo of 1903 is a testimony to the geographic nature of the term Macedonia and Macedonian people. The hero of the FYROM Goce Delchev states in an authenticated letter that they are Bulgarians while the so-called father of FYROMs Macedonism affirms the Slavonic culture of the Macedonians (Giorgio Nurigianni, 1972).

In the official Turkish census of 1904-1905 there is no mention of any Macedonians. The population of the European part of the Ottoman Empire, during the census was a total of 4,183,575 people and had the following structure: 1,823,500 Moslems, 1,619,300 Greeks, 455,000 Bulgarians, 151,235 Jews, 95,350 Armenians, 16,550 Serbs, 13,750 Vlachs and 8,890 Roma. The census was organized by the Inspector General Hilmi Pasha, who was appointed by the Sultan. The same census shows that in the Vilayet of Manastir the population consisted of 670,250 people and had the following structure: 250,000 Greeks, 223,000 Moslems, 143,000 Bulgarians, 13,150 Serbs, 6,150 Vlachs and 4,950 Jews. The same census also shows that the population of the Vilayet of Thessaloniki, except the Sanjak of Divris and Elbasan consisted of 1,070,100 people and had the following structure: 423,500 Moslems, 362,000 Greeks, 128,000 Bulgarians, 69,200 Jews, 8,650 Roma, 7,350 Vlachs and 1,400 Serbs. (These figures are taken from the book THE COLLUSION AGAINST MACEDONIA by Theodore Sarandis, page 25). The same numbers were reflected in the ethnographic map appended to the work of the Italian ethnographer Amatore Virgili. A census took place in Yugoslavia in 1940. The official results of this census showed no mention of a Macedonian nation. According to the census, the population of the Region of present day FYROM, amounted to 1,071,426 people and had the following structure: 710,676 Slavs (66%), 334,285 Albanians & Turks (31.2%) and 26,465 Vlachs & Greeks (2.8%).

However what happened to the Slavs residents of Southern Yugoslavia, which was also part of the Vardarska Banovina area for a time after the name change of the region into the Peoples Republic of Macedonia in August 1944? Did they all disappear? Did they migrate somewhere else? None of the aforementioned happened. Titos totalitarian regime in August 1944, accompanied by Stalins mandate, direction and blessing and the slavish cooperation and allegiance of all totalitarian consanguineous parties and governments, aimed to rename the region Peoples Republic of Macedonia and its inhabitants to become Macedonians overnight. All Eastern bloc countries were aiming to usurp Greek Macedonia with its warm port of Thessaloniki as their trophy. During the Balkan Wars 1912-13 there was no Macedonian army to fight the rights of the supposed Macedonians. During the negotiating talks of the Bucharest Treaty, there were no representatives of any Macedonian Nation. The 1914 Carnegie Report (Report of the International Commission to Report on the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars) not only did not record the existence of a Macedonian army, but neither did it record the existence of any ethnic Macedonian civilians.

In 1921 in Moscow, the Komintern (3rd Communist International) overviewed the seizure of Macedonia and Thrace in Greece, placing them into the communist bloc. Based on this decision, and when other efforts had no results, the then powerful Yugoslav Communist leader Tito had to find another approach. He suddenly discovered that the Macedonians, are not Greek and the Macedonian language is not the Greek language andScholars from the Peoples Republic of Macedonia were commissioned to re-write their history books to include the ancient Macedonian History according to the wishes of the League of Communists of communist Yugoslavia, accompanied by perverted maps showing their Macedonia going all the way down to the northern half of Mount Olympus. Also, linguists led by Blagoj Konev, a.k.a. Blae Koneski, were appointed to create the alphabet for and refine the newly discovered Macedonian language, which, of course, was made to sound as if it were the natural development of the ancient Macedonian language. Through their control of mass media and education, the government of Peoples Republic of Macedonia then introduced this language and claimed that it is the language that was spoken by the ancient Macedonians. However, this language is grammatically nearly identical to Bulgarian and, due to continuous government interventions its vocabulary tends to include more Serbo-Croatian words that have replaced the Bulgarian words. Former FYROM Prime Minister Georgievski affirming this fact wrote: I will give an example with the newly formed stupidity expressed in the term classical Macedonian language (language in Ancient Macedonia as a basis of modern Macedonian language?!). The whole story about Ancient Macedonia sounds undoubtedly very nice. However, there is a great problem, a huge hole of about 2,000 years during which we have neither oral nor written tradition, nor a single scientific argument! (Ljubco Georgievski, FOCUS, 31 March 2008 ).

It is truly unnecessary to be forced to defend the well-known historical facts about ancient Macedonias Hellenism after so many books and reputable, respected world historians and archaeologists have written articles about it. The archaeological findings in Macedonia proper and all the way to Central Asia, Egypt and India where Alexander the Great went, including cities with Greek names, coins and statues with Greek inscriptions, letters written by simple Macedonian soldiers and by simple Macedonian women as the curse of the Pella Katadesmos, written in Northwestern Greek dialect, architectural styles of temples, writings by ancient historians, all demonstrate the Hellenism of Macedonia. The marble statues and gravestones in two continents speak Greek! There is not a shred of evidence that a language other than Greek was spoken in ancient Macedonia and in countries conquered by Alexander the Great.

A practical question could be posed to Professor Friedman. Mount Olympus is in Macedonia, Greece. Would the Athenians, Spartans, and the other Greeks have their Gods (Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo, Aphrodite, etc) living on a mountain belonging to Macedonia if that province was not part of the Greek world? Dr. Federico Krutwig Sagredo, President of Hellenic College of Bilbao in Spain in a lecture stated: Macedonians were only the people who were members of a Greek tribe Those who are now saying that the Slavs of Skopje are Macedonians are either lying or lack knowledge or they have hidden irredentist purposes . (Hellenic Education, Ancient Greek Courses - 7th Lesson, p. 117).

There is not one scientific argument regarding the imaginary amalgamation of the Slavs with the ancient Macedonians, who according to Fanula Papazoglus dissertation were Greek speakers (Fanula Papazoglu, Skopje 1957, 333). The newly authenticated inscription of Katadesmos brings the Macedonian dialect in the realm of Northwestern Greek dialects along with Acarnanian and Aetolian, which verifies Titus Livius statement that Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Macedonians are people of the same speech. Katadesmos bears the phenomena that distinguish the Northwest Greek dialects as pointed out by Carl D. Buck (Carl D. Buck, 1907, 241-276). Dr. Friedman argues that the Bulgarian language differs from the Macedonian language because their bases are different. The Bulgarian language has its basis in Sofia whereas the Macedonian comes from the Veles, Bitola, Prilep and Kichevo area. If the FYROM language has its basis on the dialect of Veles, Bitola, Prilep and Kichevo area, that statement proves that FYROM Slavic was born in 1945. The government of the Peoples Republic of Macedonia imposed that basis on its people during that time. Based on Friedmans argument, what was the basis of the pre-1945 Macedonian language? Sofia? It had to be because the Macedonian language did not exist on its own since there were two additional equal dialects, the one of Stip-Strumica and one of Skopje. In addition, as a matter of political agenda and policy successive governments of Skopje inserted through controlled education and press vocabulary from other Slavic languages, especially from Serbian, aiming to create a completely different language from the one the people of that Republic spoke in 1945. To safeguard anything Macedonian after its independence the government of the FYROM passed the Penal Code (articles 178 and 179) making the challenge to anything Macedonian a crime. That includes the universities. What happened to democracy? What happened to the academic freedom and non-attribution? Regarding the loss of the infinitive, it is a fact that it is a regional issue applying to all south Balkan languages. In the case of the FYROM language it never had one since its mother language, Bulgarian, has long lost its infinitive with a few traces of the old infinitive remaining in the negative Imperative, which has almost disappeared.

FYROM is a small landlocked country in the southern Balkans with serious domestic issues, which exports problems and instability to its neighboring countries. It is the only country in Europe that reciprocity and compromise are unknown, while irredentism and aggression are the norm. It is the result of an ultra-nationalistic government that follows Macedonism, a nationalistic concept created by the communists based on a history that they purposely falsified in order to hide imperialistic and revanchist views. The present ultra-nationalist government of the FYROM continues the communist policies based on the lie of Macedonism. Therefore, if the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia needs a lie in order to exist, its existence is redundant.


By Theodore Spyropoulos USA SAE Coordinator
Assisted by Marcus A. Templar-Balkans Expert

 
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akritas
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Re: Victor Freidman fallacies

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March 12 2009, 2:23 PM 

A Greek academic response to Victor Friedman's views on Macedonia and Balkan multilingualism

A group of Greek academics respond to a Balkanalysis.com interview (12/14/08) featuring University of Chicago Professor of Slavic Languages & Literatures and Linguistics Victor Friedman, and focusing on Balkan history and culture. Taken from Hellenic Electronic Center.

Ime romeos e xeuro plus glose Fazio degli
Uberti, Il Dittamondo, 3.23.36
March, 2009

In his interview on Balkanalysis.com (12/14/2008) [1], Linguistics professor and Balkan Studies scholar Victor Friedman portrays Greeks as a most undemocratic and oppressive nation, from ancient to present time, and places the role of Greece in the Balkans in a most negative light. The core of his arguments seems to lie in what he considers suppression of multilingualism and minorities in Greece, which he associates with the current dispute between Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) on the name of the latter country. As scholars and academics, some of us students of Macedonian history and culture, we wish to offer an alternative perspective and rebut Friedman's views and assertions in regard to the identity of the modern Greek nation and the true nature of the current dispute between Greece and FYROM. It should be noted that, prior to our decision to write this letter, we invited Dr. Friedman to debate his views in the Hellenic Electronic Center/Professors' Forum*, but he declined our invitation.

Friedman's overt bias is best exemplified in his remark "Greeks get away with this 'cradle of democracy' image! Give me a break! Ancient Greece was a slave-owning society," which defies further comment. It is indeed unfortunate that such a statement came from a scholar.


We will not respond with similar sensationalism here. Rather, we will remain close to the facts and scholarly sources, and address those points made by Friedman which might sound reasonable to a reader who is not familiar with the past and the recent history of the Southern Balkan region.


1) Friedman states that "Greeks have been trying to destroy the Slavic culture and its literacy since the Middle Ages".


Quite to the contrary, the Greeks of Byzantium and the post-byzantine period immensely and crucially contributed to the development of the Slavic cultures of Russia, Bulgaria, and Serbia, during their conversion to Christianity [2]. Remarkably, Friedman neglects to acknowledge that the written Slavic languages were developed by two Byzantine Greek monastic scholars and linguists, Cyril and Methodius of Thessaloniki. Among others, Friedman also displays sheer disregard for: a) the pivotal contributions to Russian literature and philosophy by 15th century Athonite luminary monk Maximus Graecus (ÌÜîéìïò ï Ãñáéêüò) [3]; b) the learned Greek brothers, Ioanniky and Sofrony Likhud (Ëåé÷ïýäç), founders of Moscow's first institution of higher learning, the Slavic-Greek-
Latin Academy, in 1687 [4]; and c) the centuries-old devotion of the Mother Church (Patriarchate of Constantinople) and Greek clergy to their Slav brethren, as embodied in the published works of the 19th century influential theologian and scholar Konstantinos Oeconomos (Êùíóôáíôßíïò Ïéêïíüìïò åî Ïéêïíüìùí)[5], a strong advocate of the historical ties and close kinship between Greeks and Slavs through the centuries.
2) In his rather bookish and rigidly circumscribed view about linguistically divergent constituencies in Greece, Friedman challenges the very essence of Modern Greek identity by disregarding -in a historical sense- the inclusive tradition of Romiosyni, the natural precursor of the Modern Greek nation. The concept of Romiosyni is, in many respects, akin to a 'Greek Commonwealth', which transcends racial, tribal, and regional linguistic barriers. In failing to bring this concept into consideration when it comes to the historical context of multilingualism in the Balkan region, Friedman echoes earlier claims bylet us noteGreek scholars such as the late Loukas Tsitsipis [6] of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the late Kostas Kazazis [7] of the University of Chicago. Friedman -who is no stranger to Arvanitika, Vlahika and Slavonic dialects in the geographic region of Macedonia- fails to acknowledge that linguistically variegated groups such as Vlach-, Arvanite-, and Slavonic speakers in Macedonia, members of the Ottoman Rum millet and loyal followers of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, were not "Hellenized" subjects (by way of coercive or repressive assimilation) but rather they comprised dominant forces decisively partaking in the fermentation process leading to the shaping of Modern Greek identity and the dissemination of Greek letters in Ottoman Rumelia long before the eruption of ethnic feuds, divisions, and regional nationalisms [8, 9].
3) Friedman alludes to Greek indifference or even resistance to learning foreign languages, unlike other Balkan peoples. It is surprising that a Linguistics scholar uses the (presumed) lack of a Greek proverb to the effect that 'languages are wealth' as evidence that Greeks do not value multilingualism. This kind of rhetoric does not constitute a sound linguistic argument, and though possibly appealing to a lay-person, it reflects a way of thinking (called "strong relativism") that has been largely discredited in current Linguistics.

To go back to scholarly sources, in his book "Bilingualism and the Latin Language" Cambridge University Press, 2003 [10], John N. Adams, Senior Research Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, asserts that whilst "it has long been the conventional opinion that Greeks were indifferent or hostile to the learning of foreign languages, recently it has been shown that that view is far from the truth. Latin in particular was widely known, as has been demonstrated by Holford-Strevens and on a massive scale by Rochette." [11]

With reference to the modern history of the Greek Nation (ÃÝíïò), members of the Rum millet and Romiosyni, ranging from those belonging to the high echelon of diplomats and luminaries of the Sublime Porte (viz. the Phanariots) to the ubiquitous Balkan merchants and retailers in the Ottoman Rumelia, were in fact polyglot (Greek-, Vlach-, Albanian-, Slavonic-, and/or Turkish-speaking, many of them acquainted with Russian, French, German and/or English). Noteworthy in this regard was the precocious (18th century) Greek 'renaissance' in Moschopolis/Moscopole (present day Albania) [12] and the
19th/early 20th century Greek cultural dimension in Pelagonia (Krushevo and Monastir/Bitola; present day FYROM) [8, 9]. These centers fostered the dissemination of Greek culture and letters, promoted by bilingual or polyglot speakers with fervent Greek national identity. Vestiges from this, once flourishing, community are still present today
in FYROM.

The famous Protopiria (Primer), an Albanian-German-Modern Greek-Vlach dictionary written by the polymath cleric and scholar Theodoros Anastasiou Kavaliotis (Kavalliotes) [13], was the forerunner of comparative linguistics in the Balkans. It was printed in 1770 in Venice, and stands as a reminder of the widespread multilingualism in the flourishing Grecovlach center of Moschopolis/Moscopole and across the territories of the Ottoman Rumelia (the geographical region of Macedonia included).

Reference is made herein to the published works by Thomas Paschidis (1879) [14] and Mihail Lanbrinydis (1907) [15], which capture the collective memories of Arvanite and Vlach Greeks during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. These works offer a palpable proof of the Greek-Albanian kinship perceived by the 19th century Greek scholars. Noteworthy in this regard are the demonstrative sentiments of Thomas Paschidis, a bilingual -possibly polyglot- Greek Epirote/Arvanite luminary, towards his Grecovlach and Bulgarian brethren. His book contains an appendix in Arvanitika using Greek characters, which is especially informative and enlightening [14].

Given the above, we contend that claims for the presence of divergent identities of Greeks, Arvanites, Vlachs, and so-called Macedonian Slavs, based solely on linguistic grounds, should be viewed with cautious circumspection and within the context of time and space. In particular, it is somewhat surprising that Friedman did not consider the massive diffusion of Arbereshe (Arvanite) speakers southward into the Helladic Mainland and the Peloponnese during the 14th and 15th centuries (and the most relevant Stradioti saga). The remarkable fermentation and integration of Arbereshe/Shqiptare-speaking populations with Greek-, Vlach/Armin-, and Slavonic-speaking members of the Rum millet during the ensuing centuries remains at the core of Romiosyni and Modern Greek ethnogenesis.

Thus, from a modern historic and anthropological perspective, the rigidly circumscribed and sharply delimited ethno-linguistic 'definitions' and compartmentalizations brought forward by Friedman are open to critical reappraisal. Importantly, they are, to a large extent, alien and irrelevant to the Greeks of Arvanite or Vlach origin, whose identity has been shaped by their collective participation in the Modern Greek Experience during the past two (and possibly more) centuries.

The "Declaration of the Northern Epirotes from the Districts of Korytsa and Kolonia Demanding Union of Their Native Province with Greece -- Pan-Epirotic Union in America, (Boston, 1919)" is a testament to the perception of their Greek identity among Albanian-, Vlach- and Greek speakers in Southern Albania/Northern Epirushttp://www.helleniccomserve.com/pdf/Declaration%20of%20Northern%20Epirotes%20i n%2019%5B1%5D...pdf
Whilst the vision of the 18th century Grecovlach luminary Rigas Velestinlis Thettalos (Feraios) for the creation of a post-Ottoman Balkan Federation/Commonwealth, transcending regional and linguistic differences, did not materialize, the idea -nonetheless- reflected the sentiment of many emancipated Greeks at the time. But the ethnic/national 'awakenings' and the divisive forces were already underway, heralding the partial disintegration of Romiosyni followed by a protracted and intractable course of regional feuds and dissensions, which unfortunately live up to this day. The emergence of the ethnocentric national(istic) narrative of 'Makedonism' is symptomatic of delayed 'awakening' thanks -in part- to the contributions by scholars like Dr. Victor Friedman.

4) Friedman's argument that "the Greeks came up with a line claiming the Macedonians could not claim the name Macedonia unless they were descended from the Ancient Macedonians" is a sheer misrepresentation. The basis of the dispute between Greece and FYROM lies on the open attempt by the FYROM government to appropriate a very significant part of the Greek history (see examples:http://faq.macedonia.org/history/ andhttp://www.macedonia-timeless.com/). As part of its newly constructed national narrative, FYROM has opted to trace its historical roots to classical antiquity, underrating the predominantly Slavonic cultural heritage of the majority of its population, which is shared with its Bulgarian brethren. In the words of Dr. Evangelos Kofos, Greece's leading authority on Modern Macedonian History, this all-encompassing doctrine of 'Makedonism' is "encroaching upon an illustrious past, which had been recorded in the annals of Hellenic heritage, almost a millennium prior to the arrival of Slavic tribes in the region" [16] (N.B. There was no Slavic presence in Macedonia until nearly 1,000 years after the time of Alexander the Great).

Aside from the grandiose ideations traceable to antiquity, there is yet another darker side to the ethnocentric national narrative of 'Makedonism'. Central to the problem at hand is the morbid obsession with race, DNA, HLA haplotypes, and the likes, underlying a broader racial purity narrative. In the video below, one can see footage from a staged propaganda-style inspirational film titled "Makedonska Molitva" (Macedonian Prayer), which was aired on the government-run MTV1 - National TV, First Channel television station of Skopje. Note that the video culminates in a crescendo blending biblical apocalyptic delusions with overtly racial overtones from a different era. Thus, using Hellenized terms, the narrator speaks God's words to the children of the Sun and Flowers telling them that Mother Earth gave birth to three races: "Makedonjoide = white race, Mongoloide = yellow race, Negroide = black race (all others being mulattoes)." And God went on to say to the Makedontsi that, "All white people are your brethren because they carry 'Macedonian' genes." [17]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZJ62MGF7xI
It is indeed regrettable that Friedman has opted to downplay the gravity and long-term implications of a morbidly nationalistic narrative nurtured in the primary and secondary school curricula of FYROM.

Greeks throughout the world do not harbor any enmity or hostility toward FYROM nationals, and yearn for a peaceful and productive coexistence between the two peoples.
Greece has an earnest desire for mutual respect and the realization of a lasting political solution with its northern neighbor. Greece does not deny the nationals of FYROM their identity (or identities). In this dispute, Greece is only compelled to delineate the distinction between the ethno-cultural domains of Greek Macedonia and FYROM. With this in mind, we wish that the people of FYROM start questioning the state propaganda and reflect upon their recent history. They were victimized for half a century under a totalitarian regime and were nurtured under a propagandistic educational system. In keeping with this entrenched tradition, Article 6 of the Law on the Scientific Research Activity, as published in the "Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia" Nos.13/96 and 29/02, proscribes the development of any scientific research on the ethnic identity of the citizens of FYROM. We believe that such obsessive preoccupation with national identity in the 21st century, coupled with misrepresentation of history, only harms the citizens of FYROM.

As a geographic region, Macedonia has long been known for its ethno-linguistic diversity for which the time-honored term "Macedonian salad" was coined. Hence, Macedonia is neither a single country nor the cradle of a single nation, but a geographic region (with protean borders throughout history) parts of which belong nowadays to three states, each with its distinctive cultural heritage, national identity, and collective memory. It is most disturbing that Skopje claims the entire geographic Macedonian region of modern times as part of that nation's "tatkovina" (fatherland), thus effectively laying claim to unredeemed territories in Greek Macedonia [18]. This is not a "hidden agenda". The government of FYROM has published and circulated a state map showing FYROM to extend over Greek territory, including Thessaloniki [19].

The Hellenic identity of ancient Macedonia is indisputable; it is supported by historical, archeological, and linguistic evidence. For the socio-political and historical facts, the most authoritative source is the classic work of the leading scholar on the history of ancient Macedonia, the late Prof. Nicholas Hammond's book, The Macedonian State, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989. As regards the language, by 5th century B.C. Attic Greek was standardized as the language of Ancient Macedonia (Makedon). For instance, of the 1,044 inscriptions included in the fascicle Inscriptiones Thessalonicae et Viciniae (ISBN 3 11 0018594) -one of the most painstaking and complex volumes of the Berlin corpus, encompassing all the inscriptions of ancient Thessaloniki from the 3rd century B.C. to the 7th or 8th century A.D.- most are Greek, while a few are Latin (personal communication with Dr. John C. Rouman, Professor Emeritus of Classics at the University of New Hampshire) [20]. When considering the pre-5th century B.C. language (for which evidence is more fragmentary), the current consensus seems to be that it was a Hellenic dialect. The term "Hellenic" has been proposed by Professor Brian Joseph (Ohio State University, 1999, 2001) [21] to refer to the linguistic sub-family within the Indo-European languages that comprises Ancient Macedonian and the rest of the Greek dialects. This classification has been adopted by the LINGUIST list (the official electronic site of Linguistics); see
http://www.linguistlist.org/forms/langs/GetListOfAncientLgs.html and
http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/get-familyid.cfm?CFTREEITEMKEY=IEG
On the first site, it is additionally cautioned that "Macedonian is the ancient language of the Macedonian kingdom in northern Greece and modern Macedonia during the 1st millennium B.C. Not to be confused with the modern Macedonian language, which is a close relative of the Slavonic Bulgarian [emphasis ours]." For additional references on the subject, see G. Babiniotis, "Ancient Macedonian: The Place of Macedonian among the Greek Dialects" in : A. M. Tamis (ed.), Macedonian Hellenism, Melbourne 1990, pp. 241-250; C. Brixhe, A. Panayotou, "Le Macedonien" in: Langues indo-europeennes, ed. Bader, Paris, 1994, 205-220; and J. Chadwick, The Prehistory of the Greek Language, Cambridge 1963.

5) Friedman's assertion that the Greek State has implemented repressive measures against the "Macedonian minority" in Greece is politically motivated. Most importantly, it misrepresents the real demographic situation in the Northwestern prefectures of Greek Macedonia, by not taking into account the fact that the use of variant local Slavonic-like idioms/dialects is widespread among bilingual, indigenous Greek Macedonians with unambiguous Greek identity. These bilingual Greek Macedonians (also known as Grecomans or Grkmani) along with Grecovlachs were the backbone of Romiosyni and Hellenism in the region during the 19th and 20th centuries. Friedman should by now be cognizant of the fact that when it comes to Macedonian identities it ultimately boils down to choices of national affiliation, as, not infrequently, even members of the same family may profess divergent ethnic/national identities. And even though Greece disputes the existence of a "Macedonian minority" on the grounds of definition, the self-described "party of the Macedonian minority in Greece", Rainbow-Vinozhito, enjoys full recognition by the Greek state (and receives a negligible number of votes in elections). Vinozhito's members are free to openly express their grievances and dissenting opinions.

The problem of FYROM is further compounded by the fact that a large proportion of its population, and a number of the Slavophone inhabitants of Greece, collaborated with the Italian and German occupation forces (1941-1944) [22] and by the rekindling of old family feuds and grievances dating back to the days of the Greek Civil War (1945-1949). These have nowadays resurfaced thanks to the bitter politics embraced by a third generation of politicians in Skopje, belonging for the most part to the nationalist VMRO-DPMNE party [16, 22]. Some of them, like current Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski, identify themselves as "Aegean Macedonian" (Egejski) political refugees, based on their family roots in Greek Macedonia [16]. At issue are claims for restitution and/or repatriation, subjects that other states with autonomist Axis collaborators (such as the Czech Republic and Poland) refuse even to discuss [22, 23]. Whilst during the past thirty years the Greeks have managed to heal some of the Civil War wounds, there are still fresh memories, even among members of the Greek Communist Party, about the subversive actions of Makedonski autonomist bandsmen of NOF endangering the territorial integrity of Greek Macedonia. By playing the Egejski card half a century later, in the midst of negotiations over the thorny 'name issue', Skopje shows an increasingly intransigent and confrontational -rather than constructive- approach.
We conclude by emphasizing that sensationalism and sheer bias, as displayed in Friedman's interview, serve neither historical truth nor a constructive scholarly or political discourse; and they certainly do not help the people of FYROM. No intellectual and scholar should feel comfortable accepting, let alone promoting, such rhetoric.


ENDNOTES

1. Victor Friedman on Macedonia: the Balkanalysis.com Interview
http://www.balkanalysis.com/2008/12/14/victor-friedman-on-macedonia-the-balkanalysiscom-interview/
2. "Byzantium nurtured the untamed tribes of the Serbs, Bulgars, Russians and Croats and shaped them into nations. It gave them its religion, its institutions, its traditions, and taught their leaders how to govern. Indeed, [Byzantium] gave them the essence of culture -written language/script and philology." F. Dvornik, Les Slaves, Byzance et Rome au IXe siecle, II, Paris 1928 and P.P. Charanis, The development of Byzantine Studies in the United States. Acceptance lecture by Professor P. Charanis upon his conferral of Doctor honoris causa by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (14.3.1972), Thessaloniki, 1973, 34. Cited in Achille Lazarou, Ellinismos kai Laoi Notioanatolikis (NA) Evropis. Diachronikes kai Diepistimonikes Diadromes. Tomos A'. Lychnia Publishers, Athens, 2009, p. 218 [ISBN 978-960-930950-9].
3. Antonios-Emilios Tahiaos O Athonitis Monahos Maximos o Graikos. O Teleftaios ton Vyzantinon sti Rossia, published by the Society for Macedonian Studies, People's Library, Thessaloniki 2008.http://www.ems.gr/ems/client/userfiles/file/EKDOSEIS/MAKEDONIKI_LAIKI_BIBLIOTHIKI/Taxiaos_ Maximos_Graikos.pdf
4. Before coming to Moscow, the Greek brothers studied in Venice and Padua. At the Moscow Academy, Ioanniky taught physics while his brother Sofrony taught physics and logic in the Aristotelian tradition, while also emphasizing the works of Byzantine philosophers. The Greek brothers embodied the so-called "Greek" trend that prevailed in Russian culture prior to the radical reforms introduced by Peter the Great. Unlike the "Latin" tradition, which emanated from medieval Western scholasticism with a slant toward rhetoric and poetry, the Greek trend focused heavily on philosophy, history, and natural sciences. The rich and fertile rivalry between these two scholarly and scientific traditions was a prevailing feature of Russian culture during the late 17th century [Source: Alexander Vucinich, Science in Russian Culture: A History to 1860, Stanford University Press, 1963]
5. P. Matalas, Ethnos kai Orthodoxia. Oi peripeteies mias schesis. Apo to 'Elladiko' sto Voulgariko schisma. Panepistimiakes Ekdoseis Kritis, 2002
6. Lukas D. Tsitsipis. A linguistic anthropology of praxis and language shift: Arvanitika (Albanian)
and Greek in contact. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Also, see Victor Friedman's "The Albanian Language in Its Eastern Diaspora." Arvanitika kai Ellenika: Zetemata polyglossikon kai polypolitismikon koinoteton [Greek: Arvanitika and Greek: Problems of multilingual and multicultural communities], Vol. 2, ed. by Loukas Tsitsipis. Livadeia, Greece: European Union & The Prefecture of Levadeia, 1998,
pp. 215-231.
7. Kostas Kazazis'obituary by Victor Friedman posted on the website of Society Farsarotul, a United States-based political activist group promoting the so-called independent Aromanian movementhttp://www.farsarotul.org/nl25_5.htm
8. Antonis M. Koltsidas' monograph entitled Greek Education in Monastir - Pelagonia Organisation and Operation of Greek Schools, Cultural Life. [English Translation by Janet Koniordos] published by the Society for Macedonian Studies, Macedonian Library - 105, Thessaloniki 2008
http://www.ems.gr/ems/client/userfiles/file/EKDOSEIS/MAKEDONIKI_BIBLIOTHIKI/Koltsidas_Monast
iri_Pelagonia.pdf
9. See Christos D. Katsetos' article entitled Vlahoi. Rahokokalia tou Ellinikou ethnous (Vlachs - The backbone of the Greek nation) published in the Athens newspaper Apogevmatini (on 11 November, 2007, p. 17)http://www.vlahoi.net/content/view/257/109/
10. See the excerpt from the Introduction of J.N. Adams' book.http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/17714/excerpt/9780521817714_excerpt.pdf
11. See Rochette's treatise Les Romains et le latin vus par les Grecs.http://www2b.ac-lille.fr/langues-anciennes/telechargement/20Latinetgrec4eme.pdf

12. See Lazarou, op. cit., p. 293 [vide supra]. Prokopios Dimitrios Pamperis Moschopolitis, «Áðáñßèìçóéò Ëïãßùí Ãñáéêþí», Hamburg, 1772. Reprinted by Karavias Publishers, Athens, 1966http://www.rarebooks.com.gr/book.asp?catid=361
13. Theodoros Kavaliotis, founder of the New Academy of Moschopolis, was the author of a quadrilingual dictionary entitled Protopiria. Das dreisprachige Worterverzeichnis von Theodoros Anastasiu Kavalliotes aus Moschopolis, gedruckt 1770 in Venedig: albanisch-deutsch-neugriechischich-aromunisch/ neu bearbeit, mit dem heutigen Zustande der albanischen Schriftsprache verglichen_ [Protopiria (Ðñùôïðåéñßá)= Primer. Three Lists of Words in Three Languages, which was printed in 1770 in Venice: Albanian-German-Modern ('Nea') Greek-Armin/Vlach; New edition, with the today's Situation of the Albanian written Language].
14. Thomas Paschidis, «Ïé Áëâáíïß êáé ôï ìÝëëïí áõôþí åí ôù Åëëçíéóìü) - ÌåôÜ ðáñáñôÞìáôïò ðåñß ôùí ÅëëçíïâëÜ÷ùí êáé ÂïõëãÜñùí»), õðü È. Ðáó÷ßäïõ [Shqiptaret dhe e ardhmja e tyre ne helenizem - Me shtese mbi grekovllehte dhe bullgaret] Th. Paskidu, 1879 [The Albanians and their future in Hellenism -With an appendix on Grecovlachs and Bulgarians]. Reprinted by Karavias Publishers, Athens, 1981http://www.rarebooks.com.gr/book.asp?catid=356http://www.shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/albanologji/Paskidu_1879.pdf
15. Mihail Lambrinidis, «Ïé Áëâáíïß êáôÜ ôçí êõñßùò ÅëëÜäá êáé ôçí Ðåëïðüííçóïí (Õäñá-ÓðÝôóáé)», õðü Ìé÷áÞë Ëáìðñõíßäïõ, 1907[Shqiptaret ne Greqine qendrore dhe ne Peloponez Mihail Lambrinidou, 1907] [The Albanians in Mainland Greece and Peloponnese (Hydra-Spetsae)]. Reprinted by Karavias Publishers, Athens, 1981http://www.rarebooks.com.gr/book.asp?catid=357http://www.shqiptarortodoks.com/tekste/albanologji/Lambrinidu.pdf
16. See analysis by Dr. Evangelos Kofos of the ICG Report "Macedonia's Name: Breaking the Deadlock"http://blogs.eliamep.gr/en/kofos/analysis-icg-report-macedonia's-name-breaking-the-deadlock/#more-92 Also, see essay by the same author entitled 'The Unresolved "Difference over the Name": The Greek perspective'. In: Kofos E, Vlasidis V (Eds) Athens-Skopje: An Uneasy Symbiosis, 1995-2002. Research Centre for Macedonian History and Documentation at the Museum of the Macedonian Struggle, Thessaloniki, 2005http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/InterimAgreement/Downloads/Interim Kofos.pdf

17. See claims about the 'Sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks' in state-sponsored ethnogenetic studies.http://www.makedonika.org/processpaid.aspcontentid=ti.2001.pdf
18. Kofos, ibid
19 Vance Stojcev. Voena Istorija Na Makedonija: Skici. Sojuzot na drustvata na istoricarite na RM i
Voenata akademija General Mihailo Apostolski, ISBN 9989776075 (9989-776-07-5)/ Military History of
Macedonia. Military Academy General Mihailo Apostolski, ISBN 9989134057 (9989-134-05-7)
20. Excerpted from the letter of Dr. Rouman to the New Hampshire Governor Craig Benson (dated 2002). Dr. Rouman was for five years, both at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, research assistant during Professor Charles F. Edson's protracted and difficult project, focusing on the editing of all the inscriptions of ancient Thessalonica from the third century B.C. to the seventh or eighth century A.D. for the German Academy of Berlin. For his meritorious contribution Dr. Edson was awarded the prestigious Charles Goodwin Award of Merit of the American Philological Association.
21. Brian Joseph (1999), Ancient Greek in: J. Garry, C. Rubino, A. Faber, R. French (editors), Facts Aboutthe World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages: Past and Present, New
York/Dublin, H. W. Wilson Press, 2001
22. See article by Aristide D. Caratzas titled Oi nazistikes rizes tou VMRO (the Nazi origins of VMRO)published in the Athens newspaper Ethnos (2.8.2009)
http://www.ethnos.gr/article.asp?catid=11378&subid=2&tag=8334&pubid=1370687 Also, see article by the same author entitled "Why the Greek People Cannot Easily Accept FYROM's Claims" published in The National Herald (30.8.2009)http://rieas.gr/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=739&Itemid=41
23. See commentary by Evangelos Kofos titled "Unexpected Initiatives: Towards the resettlement of aSlav-Macedonian minority in Macedonia?" (Originally published in the Athens newspaper To Vima onJune 25 , 2003)http://www.macedonian-heritage.gr/Opinion/comm 20030710Kofos.html


SIGNATURES
Martis, Nikolaos, Former Minister of Macedonia/Thrace.
Agathos, Spiros N., Professor, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve,
BELGIUM.
Albrecht-Piliouni, Effie, Professor of Linguistics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. Albrecht, Ulrich, Professor of Mathematics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL USA. Anagnostopoulos, Stavros A., Professor of Civil Engineering, Head, University of Patras,
26500, Patras, GREECE.
Anastassiou, George, Professor of Mathematics, University of Memphis, USA. Anastassopoulou, Jane, Professor, NTUA, GREECE.
Andreadis, Stelios T., Ph.D., Professor, Bioengineering Laboratory, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, New York, USA.
Antoniou, Antonios, Dr. Dent., D.M.D., Dental Surgeon, Lemesos, CYPRUS.
Arkas Evangelos, Ph.D., CEO Prometheus Technology Inc. London, UK.
Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki, Ph.D., Research Assistant Professor of Neuroscience, Dept. of APG and Dept. of Psychiatry, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Bethesda,
MD, USA.
Athanassouli, Georgia, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Physics, University of Patras, GREECE.
Baloglou, George, Associate Professor of Mathematics (retired, SUNY Oswego), Thessaloniki, GREECE.
Balopoulos, Victor, Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Thrace, GREECE.
Barbas, John T., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA,
USA.
Billis, Euripides, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, GREECE.
Bitros, George C., Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Department of Economics, Athens, University of Economics and Business, Athens, GREECE.
Botsas, Lefteris N., Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, Economics Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, USA.
Boundas, Constantin V., Professor Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, CANADA.
Bouros, Demosthenes, MD, Ph.D. FCCP Professor of Pneumonology, Chairman, Dept, of Internal Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE
Bronstein, Arna, Associate Professor of Russian, Dept. of Languages, Literatures and Cultures, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA.
Burriel, Angeliki R., DVM, MSc, MSc, PhD, MRCVS, GREECE.
Bucher, Matthias, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, ECE Dept., Technical University of Crete,
Chania, Crete, GREECE.
Cacoullos, Theophilos, Emeritus Professor, University of Athens, Athens, GREECE.
Caratzas, Aristide D., Historian, Academic Publisher, Athens/New York.
Chaniotakis, Nikos, Professor of Chemistry, University of Crete, Crete, GREECE.
Christodoulou, Chris, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Ave, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Christodoulou, Manolis A., Professor of Control Laboratory, Technical University of
Crete, Chania, Crete, GREECE.
Chrysanthopoulos, Michael, Ph.D., Historian, Hagiographer, Thessaloniki, GREECE. Cladis, John B., Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics, Lockheed Martin Space Physics Lab, Palo
Alto, California, USA.
Clairmont, Richard, Dr., Senior Lecturer of Classics, University of NH, USA.
Constantinides, Christos, Professor Emeritus, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, USA.
Constantinou, Philip, Ph.D., Professor, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. National technical University of Athens, Athens, GREECE.
Constantopoulos, Yannis, Professor of Universite Libre du Bruxelles, Belgium and
Hellenic Naval Academy, GREECE.
Coucouvanis, Dimitri, Professor of Chemistry, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
Daglis, Ioannis A., Ph.D., Research Director, Institute for Space Applications National Observatory of Athens, Penteli, GREECE.
Damianou, Pantelis, Professor, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Cyprus, 1678, Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Danginis, Vassilios A., Ph.D., Director of Engineering, SMSC, Hauppauge, NY 11788,
USA.
Deltas, Constantinos, Professor of Genetics, Chairman of Biological Sciences, Head, Laboratory of Molecular and Medical Genetics, University of Cyprus, Kallipoleos
Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Demetracopoulos, Alex C., Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Patras,
265 00, Patras, GREECE.
Demopoulos, George P., Ph.D., Eng., FCIM, Professor and Gerald Hatch Faculty Fellow, Associate Chair and Graduate Program Director, Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Wong Building, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC
H3A 2B2, CANADA.
Dimopoulos, Nikitas, PhD, PEng, FEIC, Professor and Lansdowne Chair in Computer Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria PO BOX 3055, Victoria B.C. V8W 3P6, CANADA.
Dokos, Socrates, Dr., Senior Lecturer, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales Sydney, AUSTRALIA.
Doulia, Danae, Professor of Nat. Techn. University of Athens, Athens, GREECE. Dritsos, Stephanos E., Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of Patras, 26500,
Patras, GREECE.
Economou, Thanasis, Senior Scientist, Laboratory for Astrophysics and Space Research, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, IL, USA.
Efthymiou, Pavlos N., Professor, Dr. ret. nat., Faculty of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR - 541 24 THESSALONIKI,
GREECE
Episcopos, Athanasios, Associate Professor, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, 10434, GREECE.
Eriotis, Nikolaos, Associate Professor of Accounting, University of Athens, Philothei,
GREECE.
Fleszar, Aleksandra, Assoc. Professor of Russian, University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH, USA.
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.
Fotopoulos, Spiros, Professor, Electronics Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Patras, GREECE.
Foudopoulos, Panayotis, Ph.D., Electrical Engineer, National Technical University of
Athens, Athens, GREECE.
Fthenakis, Vasilis, Director, Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Earth and Environmental Engineering Department, Columbia University, 926 S.W. Mudd, 500 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Gatzoulis, Nina, Supreme President of the Pan-Macedonian Association (USA) and Professor, Department of Languages, Literatures and Cultures, University of New Hampshire, USA.
Gavalas, George, Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, USA.
Gavras, Irene, MD, Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine,
Boston, MA, USA.
Georgakis, Christos, Professor, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Bernard M. Gordon Senior Faculty Fellow of Systems Engineering, TUFTS University, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.
Georges, Anastassios T., Professor, Department of Physics, University of Patras,
GREECE.
Georgiou, Demetrius A., Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE.
Giannakidou, Anastasia, Professor of Linguistics, Dept. of Linguistics, University of
Chicago, USA.
Grammatikos Theoharry, Associate Director, Methods and Processes Improvement, European Investment Bank, 100, blvd Konrad Adenauer, L-2950, Luxembourg.
Groumpos, Petros P., Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, GREECE.
Halamandaris, Pandelis, Ph.D., Ed.D. Professor Emeritus, Brandon University, Deputy Director, University of Manitoba Centre for Hellenic Civilization, CANADA.
Hassiotis Sophia, Ph.D., Civil Engineering Program Director, CEOE, Stevens Institute of
Technology, Hoboken, N.J. 07030, USA.
Horsch, Georgios M., Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering University of Patras, Patras, GREECE.
Ioannou, Petros, Ph.D., Professor, Electrical Engineering-Systems, University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Iliadis, Lazaros S., Associate Professor, Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE.
Kakouli-Duarte, Thomais, Ph.D., President, Hellenic Community of Ireland, and Lecturer, Environmental Bio-Sciences, Dept. of Science and Health Institute of
Technology, Carlow, IRELAND.
Kamari, Georgia, Professor, Division of Plant Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, GR-265 00, Patras, GREECE
Kambezidis, Harry, Dr., Research Director, National Observatory of Athens, Athens,
GREECE.
Karabalis, Dimitris L., Professor, University of Patras, GREECE. Karageorgis, Demetris, Information Science Teacher, Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Karagiannidis, Iordanis, Ph.D., Assistant Researcher, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Karakatsanis, Theoklitos S., Ph.D., Electrical Engineer N.T.U.A, Assistant Professor D.U.TH., Dept. of Production Engineering & Management, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE.
Karatzios, Christos, M.D. C.M., FRCPC, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre, Division of Infectious Diseases, Montreal Children's Hospital; Associate Member, Special Immunology Division, Centre Universitaire Mere-Enfant de l'Hopital Ste Justine, University of Montreal, Quebec, CANADA.
Karayanni, Despina A., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Patras, Department of Business Administration, GREECE.
Karpathakis, Anna, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Sociology, CUNY, New York, USA.
Katsetos, Christos D., M.D., Ph.D., FRCPath, Professor of Pathology, Drexel University College of Medicine and St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Katsifarakis, Konstantinos L., Ph.D., Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GREECE.
Katsifis, Spiros, Ph.D., FACFE, Associate Professor and Chair, Department of Biology, University of Bridgeport Bridgeport, CT, USA.
Katsoufis, Elias C., Associate Professor of Physics, School of Applied Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, GREECE.
Katsouris, Andreas, Professor of Ancient Greek Philology, Division of Classical Philology, University of Ioannina, GREECE.
Kitridou, Rodanthi C., MD, FACP, MACR Professor Emerita of Medicine (Rheumatology), USC Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Komodromos, Petros, Lecturer, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Cyprus, CYPRUS.
Konstantatos (Kostas), Demosthenes J., Ph.D., M.Sc., M.B.A., Telecommunications,
Greenwich, CT, USA.
Kottis, George C., Emeritus Professor, Athens University of Economics and Business Science, Athens, GREECE.
Kugiumtzis, Dimitris, Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computational Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
GREECE.
Koussis, Antonis D., Ph.D., Research Director, Institute for Environmental Research, National Observatory of Athens, Metaxa & Vassileos Pavlou, GR - 152 36 Palaia Penteli,
Athens, GREECE.
Koutroumbas, Konstantinos, Ph.D., Researcher, Institute for Space Applications & Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Palea Penteli, 15236 ATHENS-
GREECE.
Koutselini, Mary, Dr , Department of Education, University of Cyprus, CYPRUS. Kouzoudis, Dimitris, Lecturer, Engineering Sciences Department, University of Patras,
26504 Patras, GREECE.
Kritas, Spyridon K., DVM, Ph.D., Dipl. ECPHM Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, GREECE.
Kritikos, Haralambos N., Professor Emeritus, Department of Systems and Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA.
Kyriacou, George A., Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, GREECE.
Kyriakou, Anastasia, Plant Pathologist, Agricultural Research Institute, Lefcosia,
CYPRUS.
Ladikos, Anastasios, Professor, Department of Criminology and Security Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA.
Lagoudakis, Michail G., Assistant Professor, Technical University of Crete, Chania,
GREECE.
Lambrinos, Panos, Professor of Mathematics, School of Engineering, Democritus, University of Thrace, Xanthi, GREECE.
Lampropoulos, George A., Ph.D. Adjunct Professor, ECE Dept., University of Calgary,
CANADA.
Lampropoulou, Venetta, Professor of Deaf Education, Deaf Studies Unit, Department of Education, University of Patras, GREECE.
Lazaridis, Anastas, Professor Emeritus, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013, USA.
Leventouri, Theodora, Dr., Professor, Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Lialiaris, Theodore S., BSc, MD, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor of Medical Biology and Cytogenetics, Medical School of Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE.
Lolos, George J., Professor, Physics Department, University of Regina, CANADA.
Lymberopoulos, John Ph.D., Leeds School Summer Dean, Professor of International Business & Finance Leeds School of Business, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.
Manias, Stefanos, Professor, National Technical University of Athens, Dep. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Electrical Machines and Power electronics Laboratory,
Athens, GREECE.
Manolopoulos, Vangelis G., Assoc. Professor of Pharmacology, Democritus University of Thrace, Medical School, Alexandroupolis, GREECE.
Maragos, Petros, Professor, National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Athens , GREECE.
Melakopides, Costas, Associate Professor of International Relations, University of
Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Mermigas, Eleftherios, Professor, ASCP, Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University
at Buffalo NY, USA.
Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth, Ph.D. RD, Associate Professor, Nutrition Department, Simmons College, Boston MA, USA.
Michaelides, Stathis, Ph.D., P.E. Professor and Chair, Mechanical Engineering University of Texas at San Antonio One UTSA Circle San Antonio, TX, USA.
Michailidis, Dimitri, M.D., Gen.Surgeon, President, ELEFI (Hellenic Association of Pharmaceutical Physicians), President, Auditors Committee, Hellenic Society of Pharmacology, Member, EB IFAPP, GREECE.
Michopoulos, Aristotle, Dr., Greek Studies, Hellenic College, Brookline, MA, USA. Miller, Stephen G., Professor Emeritus, Classical Archaeology, University of California,
Berkeley CA, USA.
Mylonakou-Kekes Iro, Assistant Professor, Department of Educational, Sciences, Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, 13A Navarinou, 10680 ATHENS, GREECE.
Milonas, Nikolaos, Professor of Finance, University of Athens, Marousi, GREECE.
Moulopoulos, Konstantinos, Dr., Associate Professor of Physics, University of Cyprus,
CYPRUS.
Mourtos, Nikos J., Ph.D., Professor, Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, San Jose State University, One Washington Square San Jose, CA, USA.
Nasis, Vasileios T., Ph.D., Adjunct Professor, Drexel University College of Engineering, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
Nenes, Athanasios, Associate Professor, Schools of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
Newman, Constantine, Reverent Dr., Classics Professor-University of New Hampshire,
USA.
Newman Anna, Professor of Classics-University of New Hampshire, USA.
Nikolakopoulos, Konstantin, Professor, Institute of Orthodox Theology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, GERMANY.
Panagiotakopoulos, Chris T., B.Sc., Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Educational Technology, University of Patras - School of Humanities and Social Sciences Department of Education, Archemedes Str., 265 04 Rio Patras, GREECE.
Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios, Professor of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, GREECE.
Panagiotopoulos, Dimitrios P., Assoc. Professor, University of Athens, Attorney-at-Law, President of International Association of Sports Law, GREECE.
Papadopoulos, George K., Ph.D., Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Epirus Institute of Technology, Arta, 47100, GREECE.
Papadopoulos, George, Professor Emeritus, Applied Electronics Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, GREECE.
Papadopoulos, Kyriakos, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.
Papamarkos, Nikos, Professor, Democritus University of Thrace, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, GREECE.
Papavassiliou, Dimitrios P., MD, Assistant Professor of Clinical Pediatrics Pediatric Cardiology, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian Columbia University Medical Center. New York, NY, USA.
Papazoglou, Georges, Professor of Palaeography, Chairman - Department History and Ethnology, Democritus University of Thrace, KOMOTINI, GREECE.
Patitsas, Steve, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor, Physics Department, University of Lethbridge,
4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4, CANADA.
Patitsas, Tom Athanasios, Professor Emeritus, Department of Physics and Astronomy Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, CANADA.
Pelekanos, Nikos, Professor of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete,
Heraklion-Crete, GREECE.
Pelides, Panayiotis, Ph.D., Consultant Anesthesiologist, American Heart Institute,
Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Persephonis, Peter, Professor, Physics Department, University of Patras, GREECE.
Phufas, Ellene S., Professor, English/Humanities SUNY- ECC Buffalo, NY, USA.
Pintelas, Panagiotis E., Professor of Computer Science, Dept. of Mathematics, University of Patras, Patras, GREECE.
Pittas, Stamatios, Head of Marketing Dept., KOSTEAS GROUP OF COMPANIES,
Chalkis, GREECE.
Plionis, Manolis, Ph.D., Research Director, Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, GREECE.
Pnevmatikatos, Dionysios, Assoc. Professor, ECE Department, Technical University of
Crete, GREECE.
Polychroniadis, K.E., Professor, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GREECE.
Poularikas, Alexander D., Professor Emeritus (University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama), Houston, Texas, USA.
Pozios, John LL.B., MBA, Director, Desautels Centre for Private Enterprise and the Law, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba, CANADA.
Psaras, GK, Ph.D., Professor, Section of Plant Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, GR 265 00, GREECE.
Psyrri, Amanda, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT,
USA.
Rantsios, Apostolos T., Ph.D., Dipl., Past President, World Veterinary Association,
Marousi, GREECE.
Rapsomanikis, S., Ph.D., Professor, Director, Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution, Control Engineering of Atmospheric Pollutants, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, GREECE.
Raptis, Aristotle, Professor, University of Athens, GREECE.
Rigas, Fotis, Ph.D., Associate Professor, National Technical University of Athens,
Athens, GREECE.
Roilides, Emmanuel, MD, PhD., Assoc. Professor, 3rd Dept. Pediatrics, University of Thessaloniki, Hippokration Hospital, Thessaloniki, GREECE.
Romanos, Michael, Ph.D., Professor of Economic Development, School of Planning, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Rontoyannis, George P., Professor, Dept. Phys Ed Sports, Science University of
Thessaly, GREECE.
Rouman, John C., Dr., Professor Emeritus of Classics.
Sarafopoulos Dimitrios, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, GREECE.
Samaras George, Professor, USA.
Samothrakis, Periandros, Ph.D., P.E., Hydraulic Engineer, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
Sapatinas, Theofanis, BSc, MSc, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Statistics, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Savvas, Minas, Professor Emeritus, San Diego State University, SanDiego, CA, USA.
Siafarikas Panayiotis, Professor, Department of Mathematics, University of Patras
Patras, GREECE.
Sideris, Kosmas, Ph.D., Civil Engineer Lecturer, Democritus University of Thrace,
Xanthi, GREECE.
Simitses, George J., Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of
Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Siolas, John G., Ph.D., Educator, New York, USA.
Sivitanides, Marcos P., Ph.D., CCP. Associate Professor, Information Systems, McCoy College of Business, Texas State University San Marcos, Texas, USA.
Skias, Stylianos G., Assist. Professor, Democritus University of Thrace, GREECE.
Skodras, A. N., Professor, Head of Computer Science, School of Science & Technology Hellenic Open University, 13-15 Tsamadou, GR-26222 Patras, GREECE.
Sotiropoulou, Georgia, PhD, Assoc. Professor, Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras, Rion-Patras 26500, GREECE.
Staikos, Georgios, Assoc. Professor, Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, University Campus - Rion,
GR - 265 04 Patras, GREECE.
Stamatoyannopoulos, George, M.D., Dr., Sci., Professor of Medicine and Genome Sciences, Director, Markey Molecular Medicine Center, K-240 Health Sciences Building, Box 357720, Seattle, WA 98195-7720, USA.
Stamboliadis, Elias, Associate Professor, Mineral Resources, Engineering Dept, Technical University of Crete University, Campus Chania, Crete, GREECE.
Stavrou, Esther, Ph.D., Associate Clinical Professor, Ferkauf Graduate School of Psychology, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York, USA.
Stephanopoulos, Greg W.H., Dow Professor, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering,
Cambridge, MA, USA
Syrimis, Michael, Assistant Professor, Department of French and Italian, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Tassios, Dimitrios, Professor Emeritus, National Technical University of Athens, Athens,
GREECE
Tavouktsoglou, Athanasios N., Ph.D., Professor, Concordia University, College of
Alberta, CANAD
Templar, Marcus A., M.A., M.S., Balkans expert, Illinois, USA
Thramboulidis, Kleanthis, Assoc. Professor, Software Engineering Group (SEG) -Electrical & Computer, University of Patras, PATRAS, GREECE
Triantaphyllopoulos, Demetrios D., Professor, Department of Archaeology and History, University of Cyprus, CYPRUS.
Tryphonopoulos, Demetres P., A/Dean, School of Graduate Studies, Professor, Dept. of English, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., CANADA
Tsakiridou, Cornelia A., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Philosophy, Director, Diplomat-In-Residence Program, La Salle University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Tsatsanifos, Christos, Ph.D., Civil Engineering MSc., D.I.C. M.ASCE. Athens,
GREECE
Tsigas-Fotinis, Vasiliki, Ph.D., Professor of Education, Caldwell College, Caldwell, New Jersey, USA
Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A., Ph.D., P.E., P.H., Professor of Ecological Engineering & Technology, Director, Laboratory of Ecological Engineering & Tehnology, Chairman, Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, GREECE
Tsaroucha, Alexandra, MD, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100, GREECE
Tsinganos, Kanaris, Professor, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Athens,
GREECE.
Tsohantaridis, Timotheos, Ph.D., Professor of Biblical Studies and Greek, George Fox University, Newberg, Oregon, USA.
Valanides, Nicos (visiting scholar at DePaul University, Chicago, USA), Associate Professor (Science Education), Nicosia, CYPRUS.
Velivasakis, Emmanuel E., PE, FASCE, President, PANCRETAN ASSOCIATION OF
AMERICA & HELLENIC AMERICAN NATIONAL COUNCIL, New York, USA

Vardulakis, Antonis, Professor, Department of Mathematics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GREECE
Varkaraki, Elli, Ph.D., Senior Researcher, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources,
GREECE
Vasilos, Thomas, Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA.
Velgakis, Michael, Professor of Physics, Engineering Science Dept., University of Patras,
Patras, GREECE.
Vlavianos, Nickie, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary, Calgary,
CA, USA.

http://modern-macedonian-history.blogspot.com/2009/03/greek-academic-response-to-victor.html

 
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