I closely inspected the races after cleaning, and they still looked clear, unscuffed, and bright. I also examined one of the balls, and it, too, looked bright and prefect.
Other than knowing I ran them out of place, and had one jammed partway out of the race, I'd have no way to tell that these are not brand-new bearings. (Well, that and very light scuffing on the OD where they got pressed into the quill.)
The "patterning" is very faint- I'm going to try and improve it, of course, but I could easily live with it as it is. It's smooth enough that even if I were to polish the part, it'd take only minimal effort with some fine sandpaper to smooth it up enough to take a high shine.
At the moment I figure I'll run it as-is for a bit, get a better feel for the machine, and after it's kind of broken back in, I'll swap in some new bearings and grease, and probably lightly touch-up the collet taper one more time.
Hopefully after that, it should be damn near perfect.